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Episcopal Academy
AP Biology
Investigation 8: Transformation
C. Gray Mitchell
After completing lab & lab quiz 6I on
answer the following questions:
1. What is genetic transformation? Cite one example of natural transformation
and one example of engineered transformation.
2. What organism will we use in our lab and what medium will we grow it on?
3. What ‘transformation factor’ will we use (plasmid, gene gun, virus)?
4. What is ‘log phase’ bacterial growth and why is it so important that we
transform only those colonies that are in ‘log phase’?
5. What does it mean to make bacterial cells ‘competent’? What chemical do we
use to induce ‘competence’?
6. What is the purpose of ‘heat shock’?
7. How do we ascertain that E. coli cells have been successfully transformed?
8. How is transformation efficiency calculated?
9. Name two ways that modern biotechnology uses transformation.