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The Rise and Growth of the British Rule in India
When did Vasco da Gama discover a sea route to India?
Vasco da Gama discovered a sea route to India in 1498.
Name the European countries trading with India and many parts of Asia:
The countries were Portugal Holland, England, France and Denmark.
Name the European countries that established trade centres in different parts of
The countries were Portugal Holland, England, France and Denmark.
Where did they establish their trading centres?
They established their trading centres mostly in coastal areas. These trading centres
were called factories.
What were the trading centres called?
They were called factories.
What were the people working in the factories called?
They were called factors.
How did the factors protect their factories?
These factors fortified their factories to defend themselves against the armed attacks
of their rival.
What were the items of trade?
A) Cotton textiles were prepared on handlooms.
B) Indigo that was used for dyeing cloth.
C) Saltpetre was an essential raw material in the manufacture of gunpowder.
Why did the Europeans trade with India?
The Europeans traded with India because the things they traded were scarce in Europe
and were considered as luxury goods. The companies bought them at cheap prices in
India and sold them in Europe and America for very high prices and thus made huge
Whom did the British and French in India oust? Why? How?
A) By the early eighteenth century, the English and French, from the most
important positions that they had earlier held in the trade between Asia and
Europe, ousted the Portuguese, the Spaniards and the Dutch.
B) They did this because each of them, The French companies and the British
companies wanted to dominate the trade in India.
C) To earn more profits, each wanted to purchase more goods at the cheapest
price. This led each of them to make efforts to control the markets in which
they bought the goods and to eliminate the influence of the rival.
Where did the French and the British establish their headquarters?
A) The French established their headquarters at Pondicherry on the southeast
coast of India.
B) The British established their headquarters at Fortified Fort Saint George in
Madras, not very far from Pondicherry.
How did the British establish themselves at Bengal?
The British established themselves at Bengal by means of another fortified post called
St. William at Calcutta and had begun to establish control over the export trade of
Bengal. They had also established close business connections with the Jagat Seths
who were also the bankers of the Nawabs of Bengal.
Who became the Nawab of Bengal in 1740?
Alivardi Khan became the Nawab of Bengal in 1740.
Who was Alivardi Khan? Why did he have the support of his people?
Alivardi Khan was the Nawab of Bengal and he was a good and just ruler who won
the loyalty of his people in many ways:
A) He secured the loyalty of the zamindars and his Hindu and Muslim officials
were able to give a good government to the people of Bengal.
B) He always followed a policy of keeping European merchants under control.
Who was Alivardi Khan’s successor? What was the result?
His grandson Siraj-ud-Daulah succeeded Alivardi Khan. However, this succession led
to intrigues and conflicts amongst the members of his family. These conflicts and
intrigues provided an opportunity for the English Company to interfere in Bengal
Why did Siraj-ud-Daulah attack the British in 1756?
A) The English had begun to extend their fortifications in Calcutta.
B) They also refused to surrender the treasury that they had embezzled from
The Nawab was aware of these happenings and therefore to put an end to the threat to
his authority in Carnatic, in 1756 he attacked the British is Calcutta and captured Fort
Which battle was fought between Siraj-ud-Daulah and the British?
The Battle of Palasi was fought between the British and Siraj-ud-Daulah.
Why did Siraj-ud-Daulah lose the battle of Palasi?
Siraj-ud-Daulah lost the Battle of Palasi because:
A) Mir Jafar, the commander general of Siraj-ud-Daulah’s army had conspired
with the British and hence denied raising arms against them.
B) The British had established friendly ties with the Jagat Seths who were the
bankers of the Nawab.
Who was sent to recapture Calcutta in 1756?
When the news of the English defeat at Calcutta at the hands of the Nawab reached
Madras, Robert Clive, supported by a fleet was sent to recapture Calcutta.
What was the result of the Battle of Palasi?
A) The Nawab’s army was defeated and he was put to death.
B) Mir Jafar was made the New Nawab.
C) Mir Jafar gave away large sums of money to Clive and other officials of the
English company.
D) This battle marks the beginning of the British conquest of India.
E) The English company became the real power in Bengal with the Nawab as its
F) The treasury was beginning to drain dry due to the ever-increasing demands of
the English.
What was the political significance of the Battle of Palasi?
The political significance of the Battle of Palasi was:
A) The English company became the real power in Bengal with the Nawab as its
B) The treasury was beginning to drain dry due to the ever-increasing demands of
the English.
Why did the British decide to overthrow Mir Jafar?
The British decided to overthrow Mir Jafar because the British had drained his
treasury and he could no longer comply with their demands.
Who became the Nawab after Mir Jafar?
After Mir Jafar, his son-in-law, Mir Qasim, became the Nawab.
Where did Mir Qasim go after he was driven out of Bengal and Bihar?
After Mir Qasim was driven out of Bihar and Bengal, he went to Avadh to seek
refuge with the Nawab, Shuja-ud-Daulah.
The treaty of Allahbad was the consequence of which Battle?
The treaty of Allahbad was the consequence of the Battle of Buxar.
Who was the Nawab of Avadh?
The Nawab of Avadh was Shuja-ud-Daulah.
Between whom was the Battle of Buxar fought?
The battle of Buxar was fought between the English company and the combined force
of Shah Alam II, Mir Qasim and Shuja-ud-Daulah.
What is subsidiary alliance? Who introduced it? Mention 4 features.
A) The subsidiary alliance was employed by the British to expand their empire in
B) Lord Wellesley introduced it.
1. It was an alliance, which promised military help to rulers against other
local rulers, thereby making them dependent on the British.
2. The Indian ruler had to accept British supremacy and keep a British
resident at his court.
3. The ruler had to keep a large British force with in his territory and pay
for its maintenance.
4. According to this alliance, the Indian ruler could neither render nor
receive any help from any other European power without the consent
of the British.