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
Direct Speech
Refers to reproducing another person’s exact words.
Quotation marks are used.

Indirect Speech
Refers to reproducing the idea of another person’s
words. Not all of the exact words are used: verb forms
and pronouns may change. Quotation marks are not
used.
1.
To be & Auxiliary Verbs
Direct
Indirect
Am/is/are
was/were
Shall/will
should/would
Can
could
May
might
Must
Have/has to
had to
Ought to
2.
Time & Place (keterangan waktu & tempat)
Direct
Indirect
Now
then
Tomorrow
the following day
next week
the following week
tonight
that night
today
that day
yesterday
the day before
last night
the night before
last week
the week before,
the precious week
here
there
this
that
these
those
3.
Tenses
Direct
Simple present
Present continous
Present perfect
Present Perfect Continuous
-
Simple Past
Past Continuous
-
Simple future
-
Indirect
simple past
past continous
past perfect
Past Perfect
Continuous
Past Pefect
Past Perfect
Continuous
past future
Direct
Simple Present Tenses
Indirect
»
Simple Past Tenses
+ : S + V1(s, es) + o/c
S + V2 + o/c
-
S + Did + Not + V1 + o/c
: S + Do/Does + V1 + o/c
? : Do/Does + S + V1 + o/c
Did + S + V1 + o/c
I.
STATEMENT
- Father said “I am going out of town tomorrow”
- Father said that he was going out of town the following day.
II. COMMAND
1. Positive Command to + infinitive
- Mary told me “Stop talking to Jane”
- Mary told me to stop talking to Jane.
2.
Negative Command not + to
- Mothers asked John “Don’t smoke too much”
- Mother asked John not to smoke too much.
III. QUESTION
Positive Form
- John asked Mary : “Why do you get angry with me ?”
- John asked Mary why she got angry with him.
Yes & No Question form used if, whethe
- Mary asked me : “Did you she John at the party the night before.
- Mary asked me whether I had seen John at the party the night
before.
IV. REPORTED SPEECH / MIXED TYPE used as
- She asked me :”What is the time ?”, my watch has stopped.
- She asked me what the time was as her watch had stopped.