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Fairhead, J. and M. Leach (2003) Science, Society and Power: Environmental Knowledge
and Policy in West Africa and the Caribbean, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Globalization and global science played out in local development and conservation spots
such as biodiversity, conservation and forest management in the Republic of Guinea
(West Africa) and Trinidad (Caribbean). Of particular note is the social shaping of
scientific knowledge, and how notions of good governance and management are played
out through indigenous and international forums (eg Tropical Forest International).
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------Rappaport, R. (1979) Ecology, Meaning & Religion, Berkeley: North Atlantic Books.
Classic essays from previous publications. Considers the island as a 'pristine ecosystem'
and looks at ecology and human adaptation in Papua New Guinea. Are ecosystems selfregulating? How are viewed through a functionalist lens? Cognized models of nature
and ecological processes; cybernetics and homeostasis in the environment. Adaptation
('the processes through which living systems maintain homeostasis in the face of both
short-term environmental fluctuations and, by transformations in their own structures,
through long-term nonreversing changes in their environments as well' [145]) and
disorder are useful concepts considered. Ritual and the place of the holy in evolution.
---------------------------------------------------------------------Besson, J. (2002) Martha Brae: European Expansion and Caribbean Culture-Building in
Jamaica, London: Chapel Hill.
From plantocracy to peasantry, this is a detailed longitudinal study of Martha Brae in
Jamaica, a settlement which shifted over time from slaving port to free village. Creole,
Afro-Caribbean identity and Afro-Creole culture building, 'Revivalism' and the Obeah Myal complex, family land, kinship and land tenure especially are the dominant foci in
this historical and ethnographic work, an 'architecture of kinship and land' (xix). A
substantial 30yr study by an involved Jamaican anthropologist - key Bibliography for an
anthropology of the Caribbean.
---------------------------------------------------------------------Warner-Lewis, M. (2003) Central Africa in the Caribbean: Transcending Time,
Transforming Cultures, Kingston, Jamaica: UWI Press.
Gives linguistic, economic, religious and dance evidence to support Herskovits's thesis
that the enslaved who survived the Middle Passage brought with them West African
cultural logics and practices, but a polygenetic transference (cf Mintz/Price) rather than
'intact'. Like Besson above, a substantial study summing up a life's academic work and
publications.
---------------------------------------------------------------------Collinson, H. (ed.) (1996) Green Guerillas: Environmental Conflicts and Initiatives in
Latin America and the Caribbean, London: Latin American Bureau.
This predominantly a collection of short articles or extracts from books about indigenous
communities in Latin America and their environments. Towards the end of this extensive
regional collection are some papers about modernization, ecotourism (Pattullo) and
energy in Cuba, Barbados (Hilary Beckles) and Haiti. Socialism and radical
environmentalism roots are explored and seen how they are appropriated.
---------------------------------------------------------------------Gregory, S. (2007) The Devil behind the Mirror: Globalization and Politics in the
Dominican Republic, London: University of California Press.
A detailed portrait of labour relations and agency in the Dominican Republic as people
turn to the informal economy and tourist 'hosting' (sex tourism). Gregory gives a
counter-balancing picture of globalization and neoliberal affects upon a poor local
population, static in a mobile world, and subject to national regulation of self and space.
He also explores the construction of the tourist space and atmosphere (including a tourist
police), with concomitant local exclusion. Central to this study are case studies on sex
tourism and Boca Chica's place in the global sex tourism economy.
---------------------------------------------------------------------Gössling, S. and M. Hall eds (2006) Tourism and Global Environmental Change:
Ecological, social, economic and political interrelationships, London: Routledge.
1 AN INTRODUCTION TO TOURISM AND GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL
CHANGE, STEFAN GOSSLING, MICAHEL HALL, 1-34.
Biodiversity can be used as a tourism magnet
2 IMPACTS OF GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE ON TOURISM IN THE
POLAR REGIONS, MARGARET JOHNSTON, 37-53.
3 GLOBAL ENIVONMENTAL CHANGE AND MOUNTAIN TOURISM, DANIEL
SCOTT, 54-75.
4 LAKES AND STREAMS, BRENDA JONES, DANIEL SCOTT AND STAFAN
GOSSLING, 76-94.
5 TOURISM AND FOREST ECOSYSTEMS, GOSSLING AND THOMAS HICKLER,
95-106.
96 – Volcanoes National Park in Rwanda
98 – Costa Rica 50% of all tourists visited at least one protected region
6 THE COASTAL AND MARINE ENVIRONMENT, STEPHEN CRAIG-SMITH,
RICHARD TAPPER, XAVIER FONT, 107-127.
7 DESERTS AND SAVANNAH REGIONS, ROBERT PRESTON-WHYTE, SHIRLEY
BROOKS, WILLIAM ELLERY, 128-141.
8 TOURISM URBANISATION AND GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE,
MICHAEL HALL, 142-156.
142 48% world’s population live in urban areas – Latin America and Caribbean are
highly urbanised areas (77% population – twice as high as Africa/Asia 39% in 2003)
9 TOURISM, DISEASE AND GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE: THE
FOURTH TRANSITION?, MICHAEL HALL, 159-179.
10 TOURISM AND WATER, S. GOSSLING, 180-194.
Six major tourist flows characterising international travel (after Gossling p.183)
Northern Europe to the Mediterranean
North America to Europe
Europe to North America
North East Asia to South East Asia
North East Asia to North America
North America to the Caribbean
116 million
23 million
15 million
10 million
8 million
8 million
11 EXTREME WEATHER EVENTS, CHRIS DE FREITAS, 195-210.
12 TOURISM, BIODIVERSITY AND GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE,
MICHAEL HALL, 211-226.
213 – tourists go for mega-fauna (gorilla, lion, giraffe ….) – charismatic species
214 – Costa Rica biodiversity hotspot
13 the role of climate information in tourist destination choice decision making,
jacqueline Hamilton, maren lau, 229-250.
14 restructuring the tourist industry: new marketing perspectives for global
environmental change, szilvia gyimóthy, 251- 261.
254 – ecological consumerism (ego-tourism) – personal uniqueness and self-actualisation
motivate more than a concern for the 15 US ski industry adaptation to climate change:
hard, soft and policy strategies, Daniel scott, 262-285.
17 TOURISTS AND GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE: A POSSIBLE
SCENARIO IN RELATION TO NATURE AND AUTHENTICITY, ERIKA
ANDERSSON CEDERHOLM, JOHAN HULTMAN, 293-304.
300 – existential authenticity in tourism – ‘indicating a sense of belonging, an intimate
relationship between the tourist and the world surrounding her, a non-reflexive attitude
and a sense of flow.’ - - an emotional state of authenticity – tourist trip as extraordinary
301 – aspects of authenticity: ‘the quest for uniqueness and existential authenticity – are
experiential rather than essentialist. The experience of nature and culture is thus both
individualised and commoditised.’
- nature as the exclusive experiential product
18 CONCLUSION: WAKE UP … THIS IS SERIOUS, S. GOSLING AND MICHAEL
HALL, 305-320.
3-5 – ‘sustainable’ is a throwaway term to insert into tourism planning documents
Most at-risk destinations
Land biodiversity loss
Polynesia/Micronesia
Sundaland
California
Mediterranean Basin
South African Cape
Region
Water security
South Africa
Mediterranean
Australia
Central America
South-West USA
Marine biodiversity loss
Polnesia/Micronesia
Caribbean
Maldives
South China Sea
Mediterranean
Urbanisation
Coastal Mediterranean
Coastal Southern China
Coastal Malaysia
Coastal California
Sea-Level Rise
Mediterranean
Gold Coast
Florida
Coastal China
Polynesia/Micronesia
Warmer Summers
Mediterranean
California/Western USA
Warmer Winters
European Alps
Pyrenees
Regime Change/Fuel
Australia
New Zealand
Polynesia/Micronesia
South Africa
East Africa
Middle East
Eastern and Western
Europe
Disease
Southern Africa
Mediterranean
North Queensland
South Africa
Western Europe
Rocky Mountains
Western Europe
Australian Alps
USA
Eastern European alpine Northern Australia
areas
South East Asia
Cumulative
South Africa
Mediteranean
Queensland
South-West USA
Polynesia/Micronesia
(adapted from Gossling and Hall, p.308)
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Kempadoo, Kamala (ed.) (1999) Sun, Sex, and Gold: Tourism and Sex Work in the
Caribbean, Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc..
1 KEMPADOO, ‘CONTINUITIES AND CHANGE: FIVE CENTURIES OF
PROSTITUTION IN THE CARIBBEAN’, 3-36
Fanon – Wretched of the Earth:
‘The national bourgeoise organizes centers of rest and relaxation and pleasure resorts t
meet the wishes of the Western bourgeoisie. Such activity is given the name of tourism,
and for the occasion will be built up as a national industry … The casinos of Havana and
of Mexico, the beaches of Rio, the little Brazilian and Mexican girls, the half-breed
thirteen-year-olds, the ports of Acapulco and Copacabana – all these are the stigma of
this depravation of the national middle class … [This class] will have nothing better to do
than to take on the role of manager of Western enterprise, and it will in practice set up its
country as the brothel of Europe.’ [Kempadoo 3]
4 – Caribbean history, C16th onwards, ‘nationalist and racialised concerns in the
formation and transformation of prostitution relations under slavery and colonialism.’
Wet nursing to slave breeding etc – asserting ‘racialised, colonial masculine power rested
in part on the ideological constructions of black slave women in the Caribbean as
sexually promiscuous and immoral and on nations that they were by nature “hot
constitutionalised” and sensuous in an animal-like way’, lacking purity of blood and
morality
‘Sex tours – tours arranged by a travel agency or tour operator that deliberately promites
sex as part of the vacation package and may organize visits for the tourists to specific
hotels, brothels, or nightclubs – have not surfaced in the Caribbean landscape. Instead,
beaches, bars, casinos, and nightclubs within tourist hotels function as locations where
tourists individually meet sex workers.’
15 – sexual slavery; 50,000 women working in Dominican Republic – modern
indentureship
17 – sex workers and quasi prostitution – informal activity
21 – ‘Caribbean sexuality also constitutes a critical resource within this panorama,
particularly apparent in tourism promotional materials. Postcards, travel brochures,
airline and hotel advertisements, all make ample use of images of brown and black
women and men to market the region to the rest of the world. In these promotional
materials, the women are often scantily dressed and sensually posed, inviting the viewer
to “taste” the Caribbean. The promise of a vacation is also intimately entwined with
notions of Caribbean women and men as providers of service and (sexual) pleasure.’
-
tourism-oriented sex work
- racialised and ethnic differences: ‘Clients are foreign by culture, language, and
often race to the sex worker, with the “Otherness” of the sex workers being a
source of desire for the clients. Notions of “authentic” blackness, signified by
both skin colour and cultural characteristics such as dreadlocked hair and dance
style, dominates the imaginations of female tourists visiting the islands.’
24 – hyperactivity virility, constructions of identity – locals liberated from feeling
inferioir before tourist with economic dominance
25 – aura of friendship and romance
26 - ‘Caribbean masculinity and femininity alike thus become the tableaux upon which a
reshaping and retooling of Western identity occurs. … Caribbean men and women alike
are constructed in tourist imaginations as racialised-sexual subjects/objects – the
hypersexual “black male stud” and the “hot” mulatta or black woman – whose main roles
are to serve and please the visitor. Both women and men represent the primitive,
barbarous Other to the tourist.’
26-7 – ‘the Caribbean serves as a playground for the richer areas of the world to explore
their fantasies of the exotic and to indulge in some rest and relaxation, and the racializedsexualised bodied and energies of Caribbean men and women are primary resources that
local governments and the global tourism industry exploit and commodify to cater to,
among other things, tourist desires and needs.’
28 – prostitution is similar to slavery in many respects
- 29 – ‘often men who would not necessarily solicit prostitutes at home are able to do so
while on holiday abroad due to notions that what occurs in Third World countries is “not
really prostitution”.’
4 NADINE FERNANDEZ, ‘BACK TO THE FUTURE? WOMEN, RACE, AND
TOURISM IN CUBA’, 81-91
5 AMALIA CABEZAS, ‘WOMEN’S WORK IS NEVER DONE: SEX TOURISM IN
SOSǓA, THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC’, 93-125
6 SHIRLEY CAMPBELL, ALTHEA PERKINS, PATRICIA MOHAMMED, ‘”COME
TO JAMAICA AND FEEL ALL RIGHT”: TOURISM AND THE SEX TRADE’, 125156
126 – tourism as the new sugar – the life blood of the Jamaican economy
7 LAURA MAYORGA, PILAR VELAŚQUEZ, ‘BLEAK PASTS, BLEAK FUTURES:
LIFE PATHS OF THIRTEEN
YOUNG PROSTITUTES IN CARTAGENA,
COLUMBIA’, 157-182
8 JOAN PHILLIPS, ‘TOURIST-ORIENTATED PROSTITUTION IN BARBADOS:
THE CASE OF THE BEACH BOY AND THE WHITE FEMALE TOURIST’, 183-200
183 – ‘male-oriented prostitution is based on a quest for the sexual Other. This quest is
structured along racial and gendered lines, where the white emancipated Western female
goes in search of the quintessential hypersexual black male in the centre of the Other.
9 JACQUELINE MARTIS, ‘TOURISM AND THE SEX TRADE IN ST. MAARTEN
AND CURAÇAO, THE NETHERLANDS ANTILLES, 201-216
201 - prostitution is not illegal as laws reflect Dutch laws
10 KATHLEEN RAGSDALE, JESSICA TOMIKO ANDERS, ‘THE MUCHACHAS OF
ORANGE WALK TOWN, BELIZE’, 217-236
11 CHRISTEL ANTONIUS-SMITS ET AL, ‘GOLD AND COMMERCIAL SEX:
EXPLORING THE LINK BETWEEN SMALL-SCALE GOLD MINING AND
COMMERCIAL SEX IN THE RAINFOREST OF SURINAME’, 237-262
12 RED THREAD WOMEN’S DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME, ‘”GIVIN’ LIL’ BIT
FUH LIL’ BIT”: WOMEN AND SEX WORK IN GUYANA’, 263-290
263 – (eco)tourism and sex work as consumption of the other
14 CYNTHIA MELLON, ‘A HUMAN RIGHTS PERSPECTIVE ON THE SEX TRADE
IN THE CARIBBEAN AND BEYOND’, 309-322
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Wright, Will (1992) Wild Knowledge: Science, Language, and Social Life in a Fragile
Environment, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
This book looks at ecological conceptions of knowledge and reason. Its theses are
controversial:
p.3 – ‘scientific knowledge, as our modern version of valid knowledge, does not and
cannot include such an ecological reference, and therefore cannot be a coherent form of
knowledge’
p.17 – ‘scientific knowledge is conceptually incoherent, technically proficient, and
ecologically debilitating because of its fundamental reference to objective nature, and that
the idea of knowledge can be made coherent and ecological only through the articulation
of an even more fundamental reference, a reference to the formal structure of language.’
p.20 – ‘“Wild” knowledge is knowledge that always legitimates criticism against
established institutions in the name of the formal conditions for ecological
sustainabililty.’
p.81 – Wright wants ‘an ecological idea of reason, where reason us understood in terms
of social-natural sustainability rather than in terms of technical, mathematical
achievements.’
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Anderson, E. (1996) Ecologies of the Heart: Emotion, Belief, and the Environment,
Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Anderson believes that ecological problems are due to human choice. He uses a large
number of evocative examples to suggest, after Roy Rappaport, that ecological
knowledge is coded as religious knowledge. Anderson also wants us to bring the
emotions into our ecological practices.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Milton, K. 1996. Environmentalism and Cultural Theory: Exploring the role of
anthropology in environmental discourse, London: Routledge.
Milton is a trained anthropologist and committed environmentalist, a position which leads
to some ‘conflicts’ of interest (p.2). She suggests that ‘anthropology is the study of
human ecology’ (p.23), and that Environmentalism is a cultural phenomenon, a feature of
industrial society (p.28) with Environmentalists pointing to non-industrial societies with
models of ‘sustainable’/ ‘conserver’ society. The issue, for Milton, is how to study what
one is a part of and emotionally tied to - ie as ‘committed participants and detached
observers’. Ethnoecology (local ecology), constructivism, activism, conservationists
(protect nature as a resource for human use) vs preservationists (protect nature from
human use), globalization and environmentalism.
Useful conclusions:
p.207 – ‘an ecocentric perspective recognizes the intrinsic value of all natural entities,
human and non-human animals, plants, landscapes, ecosystems, the planet as a whole,
and argues that, within practical limits, all such entities should be free to ‘unfold in their
own way unhindered by the various forms of human domination.’
p.222 – ‘One of the clearest messages that anthropologists can give to environmentalists
is that human beings have no ‘natural propensity for living sustainably with their
environment. Primitive ecological wisdom is a myth, not only in the anthropological
sense, as something whose truth is treated as dogma, but also in the popular sense, as
something that is untrue, a fantasy.’
p. 223 – NATURE ENCOMPASSES CULTURE
----------------------------------------------------------------------