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Nathan Dweck, Sam Franco, Ralph Terzi
Social Studies
Section 1
Review Sheets Central
June 29, 2017
Chapter 9
Growth of Royal Power in France
Monarchs, Nobles, and the ChurchKings stood at the head of society in Medieval Europe. The feudal monarchs ruled their
own domains, and the nobles and the Church had their own courts, collected their own
taxes, and had separate armies. The monarchs strengthened ties with the middle class.
The fights between monarchs, nobles and the Church lasted for centuries.
Strong Monarchs in England
During the early middle ages, Angles, Saxons, and Vikings invaded and settled in
England. Although feudalism developed, English rules kept their kingdoms united.
Norman Conquest- King Edward the 1st died without any children to take over, so the
nobles chose his brother-in-law Harold. But, a descendant of the Vikings, Duke William,
who is now known as William the Conqueror, believed that the throne belonged to him.
He battled for the throne, and won it at the Battle of Hastings.
William Takes Control- He was a wise and religious man, yet he was is violent. He
granted some land to the nobles and to the Church, yet he kept a large amount for himself.
He made the vassals swear allegiance to him. He always had the last word. He had a
census taken, which resulted in what was called the Domesday Book. This helped him
know more about his kingdom and it helped him to build a better system of collecting
taxes. Over the next 300 years, blending of Norman French and Anglo-Saxon customs,
languages and traditions occurred.
Increasing royal authority- His successors strengthened finances and law. Henry the 2nd
laid the basis for English Common Law, in which the law was the same for all of the
people. In time, people chose royal courts over those of nobles and the Church.
Early Juries- He also began the jury system, in which a group of men swore on oath to
speak the truth, and they determined which cases should be brought to trial. This jury
became the ancestor of today’s grand jury.
A tragic clash- His efforts to extend royal power led to a bitter dispute with the Church.
He claimed the right to try clergy in royal courts. Thomas Becket, the archbishop,
opposed the king’s move. This went on for years, until 4 of Henry’s nights went and
killed Becket, thinking this was what Henry wanted, and Henry said he had nothing to do
with this. To make peace, he did not attempt to control the clergy. Becket died a martyr
and was declared a saint.
As time passed, the English council developed into Parliament. It won the right to
approve taxes. This provided a balance to royal power. Important ideas about government
emerged in England. In 1215, English nobles forced King John to sign a document called
the Magna Carta. The Magna Carta gave rights to the people. It also stated that the
monarch must obey the low. These ideas are important in governments today.
In France, the ruling family made the throne hereditary, passing power from father
to son. The French kings were allied with the Church. The French kings in the late
Middle Ages were called Capets, after Hugh Capet. Philip the 4th reformed the French
government. He was the first to have a huge fight with the pope. He got rid of the pope
and moved the papacy to France. Louis the 9th was so religious that it led him to be
sympathetic and charitable to the poor.
Nathan Dweck, Sam Franco, Ralph Terzi
Social Studies
Review Sheets Central
June 29, 2017
Section 4
Learning, Literature, and the Arts
By the 1100’s, economic, social, and political conditions in Europe had improved.
This change created a need for education. The Church wanted a more educated clergy.
Rulers needed people who could read and write to help run the government. Wealthy
people wanted their sons to have important jobs.
The Church set up schools to train the clergy, but eventually laymen, or people
who were not in the clergy, could attend. Some of these schools became the first
universities. Women were not allowed to attend university. During this period, new
learning was reaching Europe. Scholars rediscovered the ideas of ancient Greece, Rome,
and the Muslim world. Important changes took place in medieval European literature.
Writers began to use everyday languages that ordinary people could understand, which
was called vernacular. Authors such as Dante and Chaucer wrote stories about warrior
heroes and ordinary people that showed courage, humor, and morality. Popular works
such as these give us an idea of what life was like in the High Middle Ages.
Changes also took place in architecture. Some architects built stone churches that
looked like Roman fortresses. This style was called Romanesque. Others built huge
Gothic churches with pointed arches, high ceilings, and supports called flying buttresses.
Stained glass windows and marble statues showed bible stories to those who could not
Section 5
A Time of Crisis
The late Middle Ages were a hard time for Europeans. During the 1300’s, a
deadly disease called the bubonic plague, or Black Death, spread through Europe, and it
was a disease spread by rats. One out of every three people dies from this disease. The
economy fell apart b/c of the loss of workers and rising prices. Landowners converted
farmland to sheep pastures to avoid the high wages of farm hands. Peasants who were
thrown off their farms rushed to towns, but found o jobs. People everywhere were scared
and angry, and many people turned to witchcraft. Revolts all over Europe resulted.
The Roman Catholic Church faced serious problems. Its frightened followers
needed comfort. But many priests and monks died from the plague, so the Church was not
able to help. In addition, rich popes and bishops who lived in luxury cause great
resentment. Angry reformers attacked corruption and elected their own pope. For many
years, two or three different popes ruled at the same time.
During this period, England and France fought the Hundred Years was. The
English king wanted French land and wanted to be king of France. A young woman
named Joan of Arc led the French to several victories. Then the English captured her and
she was tried for witchcraft and she was killed. Her execution inspired the French to win
the war. Later, the church made Joan of Arc a saint.
Nathan Dweck, Sam Franco, Ralph Terzi
Social Studies
Review Sheets Central
June 29, 2017
Chapter 13
Section 1
Two Golden Ages of China
The Brilliant Tang
After the Han dynasty collapsed, the united China broke into sections (sectionalism) and
these sections were completely independent.
Building the Tang Dynasty- Li Yuan, was the father of the dynasty, and his son, Tang
Taizong (AKA Li Shimin) was a wise man and he was a famous general. He united the
whole Mainland China. Tibet, Korea, Vietnam, and Japan, who were neighbors of China,
were the tributary states who had to pay tribute to the Tang dynasty even though they
remained independent, and they were forced into doing this.
Government and the Economy- As the dynasty became more civilized, the women
became less powerful (this is true for all dynasties). At the beginning of the empire, there
was an empress named Wu Zhao. She strengthened the government by reintroducing
Confucianism. Under her reign, the Grand Canal was built, which connected the Yellow
and Yangzi Rivers.
The decline of the Tang dynasty led to chaos, but this chaos following the collapse of the
dynasty did not last long.
Prosperity under the Song
In 960, Zhao Kuangyin reunited much of China and founded the Song Dynasty. Trade
increased and got better during this dynasty in terms of what it was like before. It
followed in the footsteps of the Tang Dynasty, but it was smaller. There were many
inventions during this dynasty, including vaccines and gunpowder.
Three Levels of Chinese Society
You were able to move yourself higher in class by taking the civil service exam, which
put you in a position by your skill rather by your power.
Gentry- they were wealthy landowners who valued scholarship more than physical labor.
Peasants- Most Chinese were peasants, or the ones who worked the land, living on what
they produced. Drought was a threat, but they had better tools and new crops which
improved their lives.
Merchants: prosperous but lowly- they had a lower status than peasants did because
their riches came from the labor of others. Some rulers often restricted where foreign
merchants could live, but despite these restrictions, Chinese trade flourished during Song
Status of Women
Women had a higher status earlier in the Tang and Song dynasties. Later on, women were
only called upon to run family affairs. Once a woman was married, she completely
becomes a part of her husband’s family, and she can never remarry. Also, in China, it was
a tradition to tie the feet of a woman with a ribbon, b/c it was said to be that in China,
woman with large feet wouldn’t find a husband. Small feet were then looked at as a
symbol of female nobility and beauty.
A Flood of Literature
Nathan Dweck, Sam Franco, Ralph Terzi
Social Studies
Review Sheets Central
June 29, 2017
Among the gentry, poetry was the most respected of Chinese literature. Probably the
greatest Tang poet was Li Bo, who was a lover of life and freedom. His friend, Du Fu,
wrote about more realistic things like war.
Achievements in the Arts
Landscapes- Along with poetry, painting and calligraphy were essential skills for the
scholar-gentry. They went with the Taoist tradition and they tried to capture the spiritual
essence in their work.
Sculpture and architecture- Architecture at the time was influenced by Buddhism. An
example was the pagoda, or a multistoried temple with eaves that curved up the corners.
Porcelain- the Chinese perfected skills in making porcelain, a shiny, hard pottery that
was prized as the finest in the world. They made objects like tea services, which would
later be known as “chinaware.”
Section 2
The Mongol and Ming Empires
The Mighty Mongol War Machine
From the minute he was born, Genghiz Kahn was predicted to rule the world, which was
not very far off.
Early Years- the Mongols were nomadic people when he was born. A rival clan
poisoned his father. He then took over the position of his father and led the battles, but he
was unsuccessful and was taken prisoner at the age of 15. But as he grew up, he was
courageous and he was a genius for military leadership. He then took revenge on his
enemies, and he was soon known to be “World Emperor”, for he was the supreme ruler of
all the Mongols. He conquered China, Tibet, India, Russia, Turkey and Korea.
Mongols in battle- Mongol army men were tough, skilled warriors. They were probably
the most skilled horsemen in the world. The women were also great riders and fighters.
On to China- the Mongols and the Chinese launched missiles against each other with
metal tubes filled with gunpowder. This use of cannons in war would soon spread
westward. Genghiz Kahn did not live to conquer all of China, but he did become the
world’s most successful conqueror.
Effects of Mongol Domination
His followers went on to conquer empires from southern Russia through Muslim lands in
the Middle East to China. In China, they devastated the flourishing Sichuan and its capital
city of Chengdu. Once their conquest were complete, they were not tyrannical rulers and
they did let the conquered people live like before, rather they had to pay tribute. Genghiz
set an example for his followers by ruling in tolerance, and by listening to the ideas of
Jews, Muslim scholars, etc. Trade flourished across Eurasia with the Mongols in control
of the Silk Road. Also, cultural diffusion occurred as the use of windmills and
gunpowder, for example, moved westward.
The Yuan: A Foreign Dynasty
Genghiz Kahn’s grandson, Kublai Kahn, was the one who was ruling when the last of
China was conquered (Song Dynasty.) He made his capital at Cambulac.
Government- Kublai did not want the Mongols to absorb any Chinese ideas. Therefore,
he only allowed Mongols into the military and to high government jobs. This didn’t work
because the Mongols were few, so Kublai allowed the Chinese officials to continue to
Nathan Dweck, Sam Franco, Ralph Terzi
Social Studies
Review Sheets Central
June 29, 2017
rule. Kublai then absorbed some Chinese culture, and he named his dynasty the Yuan
Dynasty. He also extended the Grand Canal to his capital. He also welcomed many
foreigners to his court.
A Western Visitor- Marco Polo, who left Venice in 1271, came and visited China for 17
years under Kublai’s service. He wrote a book speaking of his journey called
A Description of the World. There were certain things in the book that didn’t make sense,
and therefore some believed that he really never came. It was a big deal if he came
because then it would mark the beginning of European culture mixing with Chinese
culture. The Chinese believed that the Europeans got Lomagne and gunpowder from
China through Marco Polo.
Other contacts- Contacts between Europe and Asia continued. The pope sent out
Christian priests to Beijing, while Muslims set up their own communities in China.
Chinese products moved toward Europe, including gunpowder, porcelain and playing
The Ming: Restoring Chinese Rule
The Yuan dynasty fell after the death of Kublai Kahn, and a Chinese dynasty arose, called
the Ming dynasty. Zhu Yuanzhang founded it. Ming means “brilliant one”.
Cultural flowering- they were famous for their porcelain sculptures, including the Ming
porcelain jar. They were also famous for the vase. It became part of the European culture.
The voyages of Zheng He- During their time, there was an explorer named Zheng He,
who went exploring India and Africa and he made a connection between them. He died in
Turning Inward- after his death, the Ming dynasty banned ships going outward b/c they
wanted to preserve its ancient traditions.
Chapter 11
Muslims in India
Section 4
The Muslims built a dazzling new empire in India. As the Muslims mixed with
the Indians each civilization absorbed elements from each other.
The Muslims Advance
When the Gupta Empire fell in 550 India fragmented into many local kingdoms. Despite
power struggles Indian culture flourished. Trade networks linked India to the Middle
East, Southeast Asia, and China. When the Arabs armies conquered the Indus Valley in
711 they did not conquer the subcontinent. Then in 1000 Turkish converts to Islam
pushed into India. The sultan of Ghur defeated the Hindu armies across the northern
plains. He made Delhi his capital. His successors organized the Delhi sultanate. This
marked the beginning of Muslim rule in northern India. The real reason why Muslims
won was because the Hindus were not united. They battled one another. Many Hindus
later converted to Islam.
Delhi Sultanate
Muslim rule brought change to Indian government and society. Trade between India and
the Muslim world increased. During the Mongol raid of 1200 many scholars were forced
to flee from Baghdad to India. They brought Persian and Greek learning. This helped
Nathan Dweck, Sam Franco, Ralph Terzi
Social Studies
Review Sheets Central
June 29, 2017
create a brilliant civilization at Delhi where Persian art and Architecture flourished. In
1398, Tamerlane invaded India. He enslaved many artisans. The sultans no longer
controlled a large empire and Northern India was again fragmented. This time, into
Muslim and Hindu states.
Meeting of Two Cultures: The Muslim conquest of Northern India inflicted disaster
on Hindus and Buddhist. This caused Buddhism to decline as the major religion of India.
Hindu–Muslim differences- Hinduism was an ancient religion that has revolved over
thousands of years. Hindus recognized many sacred texts and prayed before Statues
representing many gods and goddesses. Islam however, was a newer faith with a single
sacred text. Muslims are monotheistic and find the carvings and statues in the temples as
offensive to god. Hindus believe in Brahman and different caste statuses. Muslims taught
the equality of all believers before god and had no religious hierarchy. Hindus celebrate
religious occasions with music and dance while the Muslims condemned.
Interactions- eventually the sultans grew more tolerant of their subject population. Some
Muslim scholars believed that behind the many gods of Hindus, was a single god.
Therefore they accepted Hinduism as a monotheistic religion. As long as the Hindus paid
their non-Muslim tax they could practice any religion they wish. A growing number of
Hindus converted to Islam. For example the lower caste Hindus preferred Islam because
they rejected the Caste system. Others accepted Islam because they liked the idea of
monotheism. The merchants were attracted to Islam because they liked the strong trade
Cultural Blending- Indian Muslims absorbed elements of Hindu culture. A new
language called Urdu, evolved as a mix of Persian, Arabic and Hindi. Nanak sought to
blend Muslim monotheism and Hindu beliefs. He believed in the unity of God, The
brotherhood of man the rejection of the caste and the uselessness of Idol worship. His
teachings led to the rise of Sikhism in northern India. The Sikhs later organized into
military forces that clashed with the powerful Mughal rulers of India.
Mughal India
Babur swept away the remaining of the Delhi sultanate and set up the Mughal dynasty,
which ruled for 300 years. It stretched from the Himalayas to the Deccan.
Akbar the Great- He was the chief builder of the Mughal Empire. He created a strong
central government on the subcontinent. He was a Muslim but won the support of the
Hindus through his policy of toleration. He opened government jobs to everybody. He
ended the tax to non-Muslims and married a Hindu princess. He hoped to promote
religious harmony through tolerance. He modernized the army, encouraged international
trade and introduced land reforms.
Akbar’s successors- Akbar’s son was a weak ruler. The golden age of the Mughal came
during the time of Akbar’s grandson. The literature, art, and architecture were at their
best. The Taj Mahal was a stunning tomb built for the wife of Akbar's grandson who gave
birth to 14 children then died. The Taj Mahal is stands as perhaps the greatest monument
of the Mughal Empire.
Decline- In the late 1600’s the emperor Aurangzeb resumed persecution on the Hindus.
Economic hardships increased under heavy taxes and discontent revolts against Mughal
Nathan Dweck, Sam Franco, Ralph Terzi
Social Studies
Section 5
Review Sheets Central
June 29, 2017
The Ottoman and Safavid Empires
The Ottoman Advance
The Ottomans were Turkish nomads who migrated to Asia Minor. In the 1300’s,
they extended to the Balkans overrunning the Byzantine Empire. In 1453, they conquered
Constantinople, and renamed it Istanbul. The Ottoman Empire kept on growing and it
stretched from Hungary, to Arabia, all the way to Mesopotamia. They ruled for centuries.
Ottoman Culture
The Ottomans had a Golden Age under the emperor Suleiman. He used a council
to help rule, a bureaucracy to supervise, and a military kept peace.
Social Classes- the Ottomans separated society into 4 classes. The men of the pen were
people of the highest authorities like scientists and judges. The men of the sword were the
soldiers. Members of these two classes had to be Muslim. The men of negotiation were
merchants and artisans. They carried out trade. The men of husbandry were farmers and
herders. They supplied the food. The non-Muslims who were conquered were organized
into millets, or religious communities. They had their own leader who was responsible for
the entire group.
Janissaries- the Ottomans forced boys of conquered people to serve in the army. These
people were called Janissaries. They were converted to Islam and were put into training
school. The best soldiers were appointed to higher positions. The girls of conquered
peoples were made slaves. (The word slave comes from Slav, the people who were
The Arts and Literature- the Ottoman culture blossomed under emperor Suleiman the
Great. They used Persian and Muslim works to produce their own literature in Turkish.
Baki was one of the greatest Ottoman poets. Sinan was a great architect who built many
mosques including one that was said to be greater than the Hagia Sophia was.
Decline- the Ottoman Empire declined as other cultures surpassed them. The Europeans
traded; the Ottomans were still based on agriculture. As time passed, different leaders
took over part of the empire until it disappeared.
The Safavid Empire
They were a Turkish-speaking dynasty. By the 1500’s, had control over present day Iran.
They were situated between the Ottomans and Mughal India. They were Shiite Muslims
and often had fights with the Ottomans over religious policies.
Abbas the Great- Shah Abbas revived the glory of ancient Persia. He centralized the
government and strengthened the military. They used force and diplomacy against the
Ottomans. Shah Abbas lowered taxes on farmers in order to strengthen the economy. He
made his capital in Isfahan, the center of silk trade. He welcomed people from all over
practicing all religions.
Decline- after Shah Abbas died, Safavid glory slowly disappeared. In the 1700’s, a new
Qajar Dynasty won control over Iran. The Safavids had lasting contributions in Iran. They
planted Shiite traditions, and gave Persians a strong sense of their own identity.
Nathan Dweck, Sam Franco, Ralph Terzi
Social Studies
Review Sheets Central
June 29, 2017