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Civil Rights Packet Review
Scott Moynihan
Jackie Robinson- broke the color line in baseball in 1947, became a symbol for the civil rights
Rosa Parks- Became a symbol of the civil rights movement when she refused to move to the
back of a bus in Montgomery, Alabama. Marked the beginning of the Montgomery Bus Boycott.
Martin Luther King, Jr.- A Baptist minister from Montgomery, led the bus boycott and became
the leader of the peaceful protest civil rights movement
James Meredith- A black man that applied to the then all-white University of Mississippi, but
was rejected on racial grounds. Sued and the Supreme Court affirmed his claim, forcing the
university to admit Meredith. Mississippi's governor Ross Barnet opposed the decision and riots
Malcolm X- Leader of the Black Liberation movement, believed that violence may be necessary if
in defense
"Bull" Connor- Police Commissioner of Birmingham that responded to peaceful marches with
fire hoses, cattle prods, and attack dogs. These tactics were widely publicized in the media and
helped gain sympathy and support for the civil rights movement.
Allan Bakke- A white student that used the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to get in to college, claiming
that affirmative action was "reverse discrimination"
Brown v. Board of Education- Supreme Court decision that overturned the 'separate but equal'
idea, specifically in public schools
Little Rock 9- Public confrontation that showed the difficulties of racial integration in the South.
Arkansas governor Orval Faubus refused to let the new black students attend, and used the
National Guard to stop them. President Eisenhower used federal troops to enforce the court's
decision to integrate the schools.
Montgomery Bus Boycott- Boycott of Montgomery buses triggered by the Rosa Parks case and
led by Martin Luther King, Jr. in 1955. More than 50,000 blacks either walked or rode in carpools
to avoid the transit. Almost a year later the Supreme Court decided that bus segregation was
unconstitutional and the boycott ended. Placed Martin Luther King, Jr. as the leader of the civil
rights movement.
Sit-ins- A protest tactic first attempted in 1960 in which blacks, usually students or young adults,
would sit at a segregated lunch counters to protest segregation.
March on Washington- A march in 1963 to show support for the passage of a new civil rights bill.
Over 200,000 participated in the march, and was the site of Martin Luther King's "I have a
dream" speech. Became a symbol of the support for the civil rights movement.
Assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.-Riots erupted all over the country when the leader of the
civil rights movement Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated in April 1968
Seizure of Alcatraz, Wounded Knee- Both violent occupations by Native Americans protesting
the cruel treatment of their people by the U.S.
Stonewall Riot- Occurred in 1968 when patrons of a gay bar fought back against police
harassment, helped the gay rights movement gain momentum
Civil Rights Acts of 1957, 1960- Both focused on protecting black's rights to vote, but heavily
compromised and brought little real change
Civil Rights Act of 1964- Outlawed racial discrimination in all public accommodations and
authorized the Justice department to act with greater authority in school and voting matters.
Voting Rights Act of 1965- Targeted and helped eliminate Southern voting restrictions, most
important voting law of the decade
Civil Rights Groups/Organizations
NAACP- The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, fought for equality
through the legal system.
CORE- The Congress of Racial Equality, an interracial group that promoted peaceful protest
SCLC- The Southern Christian Leadership Conference, an organization of black clergy
Black Panthers- militant organization that opposed whites and capitalism, represented the shift
towards more violent protest within the civil rights movement, more popular in the cities of the
North and the West
MAPA- the Mexican American Political Association, fought for Mexican American rights by
electing officials
Brown Berets- Radical militant group that fought Mexican American rights, modeled after the
Black Panthers
AIM- American Indian Movement, radical group that fought for the rights of Native Americans
NOW- National Organization for Women, the first major civil rights group for women, started by
Betty Friedan
1947- Jackie Robinson breaks the color line in professional baseball
1954- Brown v. Board orders racial integration of schools
1955- Rosa Parks refuses to move to the back of the bus, Montgomery Bus Boycott begins
1957- Little Rock 9 confrontation, Civil Rights Act of 1957
1960- Civil Rights Act of 1960, First Sit-in occurs in Greensboro, North Carolina, JFK elected
1961- Freedom Rides
1962- James Meredith challenges segregation of Southern universities
1963- Violence breaks out in Birmingham, Alabama; march on Washington, JFK assassinated,
Presidential Commission on the Status of Women, Feminine Mystique published
1964- Civil Rights Act of 1964
1965- Selma protests violently broken up, Voting Rights Act of 1965, Malcolm X assassinated
1968- MLK assassinated, Nixon elected
1969- Native Americans seize Alcatraz Island, Stonewall riot
1971- Supreme Court orders the use of buses to integrate schools
1973- Allan Bakke challenges affirmative action, Native Americans occupy Wounded Knee