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Chapter 22 Transoceanic Encounters and Global Connections MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. The Portuguese mariner who sailed to Calicut in 1498 was a. Dias. b. Columbus. c. Cook. d. Magellan. e. Vasco da Gama. Answer: e Page: 465 2. Which of the following was NOT one of the main inspirations for European exploration? a. the desire to conquer China and India b. the search for basic resources c. the desire to establish new trade routes to Asian markets d. the desire to spread Christianity e. the search for lands suitable for cultivation Answer: a Page: 466-467 3. The first European nation to dominate trade with Asia was a. England. b. Spain. c. Portugal. d. France. e. Italy. Answer: c Page: 467 4. The Portuguese viewed the Atlantic Ocean islands as the perfect location for the cultivation of a. cotton. b. sugarcane. c. indigo. d. maize. e. citrus fruits. Answer: b Page: 467 5. Which of the following was NOT a reason for the European interest in finding a maritime trade route? a. that the spread of the bubonic plague made the silk roads more dangerous b. that Mongol domination had caused trade along the silk roads to stop c. the high prices charged by Muslim merchants d. the demand in Europe for items such as Indian pepper and Chinese ginger e. the desire to expand the boundaries of Christianity Answer: b Page: 467-468 6. The reconquista came to an end in 1492 when a. Constantinople fell to Islamic forces. b. Jerusalem was recaptured by European forces as part of the seventh crusade. c. the Muslim kingdom of Granada fell to Spanish Catholic forces. d. the silk roads were overrun by Mongol forces. e. northern India was recaptured by the British. Answer: c Page: 468 7. Lateen sails had the advantage of a. allowing for faster travel than anything available in the Islamic world. b. working better in crosswinds. c. being so colorful that they could be seen from many miles away. d. being able to take full advantage of a wind blowing from behind. e. being cheaper because their basic component was jute. Answer: b Page: 468 8. The astrolabe was designed to measure a. latitude. b. velocity. c. distance. d. longitude. e. depth. Answer: a Page: 469 9. Which of the following were both Chinese inventions? a. sternpost rudder and magnetic compass b. astrolabe and magnetic compass c. lateen sail and astrolabe d. square sail and sternpost rudder e. magnetic compass and lateen sail Answer: a Page: 468 10. Which of the following men conquered the Moroccan port of Ceuta and sponsored a series of voyages down the west African coast? a. Christopher Columbus b. Henry VIII of England c. Francis I of France d. Süleyman the Magnificent of the Ottoman empire e. Henry of Portugal Answer: e Page: 470 11. The first European to sail around the Cape of Good Hope was a. Bartolomeu Dias. b. Vasco da Gama. c. Dom Henrique. d. James Cook. e. Christopher Columbus. Answer: a Page: 470 12. The profitable merchandise that Vasco da Gama purchased in India was made up of a. gold and silver. b. silk and artwork. c. pepper and cinnamon. d. silk and ceramics. e. slaves and weapons. Answer: c Page: 471 13. Christopher Columbus’s decision to sail west to reach Asia was based on a. assistance from an experienced Muslim sailor. b. secret information on trade routes that he had received indirectly from Chinese sources. c. legends left over from the earlier Viking voyages. d. his miscalculation of the distance from the Canary Islands to Japan. e. information that he had gathered after inventing his own astrolabe. Answer: d Page: 471 14. When he reached ________, Columbus sent delegates to seek the court of the emperor of China. a. Cuba b. Japan c. Brazil d. Nova Scotia e. modern-day Florida Answer: a Page: 471 15. On 12 October 1492, Columbus made landfall on an island that the native Taíno called a. Palos. b. Guanahaní. c. Calicut. d. San Salvador. e. Gao. Answer: b Page: 471 16. The first circumnavigation of the world was completed in 1522 by a. Francis Drake. b. Ferdinand Magellan. c. Vasco da Gama. d. Ferdinand Magellan’s crew. e. Vasco Nuñez de Balboa. Answer: d Page: 474-475 17. Ferdinand Magellan established a trade route between Mexico and a. Spain. b. Hawai`i. c. Portugal. d. the Canary Islands. e. the Philippines. Answer: e Page: 475 18. Most of the actual exploration of the Pacific Ocean was carried out by the a. Spanish. b. Portuguese. c. English. d. Dutch. e. French. Answer: c Page: 475 19. The explorer who led three expeditions into the Pacific in the eighteenth century was a. James Cook. b. Ferdinand Magellan. c. Francis Drake. d. Vasco da Gama. e. Vasco Nuñez de Balboa. Answer: a Page: 475 20. The English explorer James Cook died during a fight in a. Australia. b. New Zealand. c. Hawai`i. d. Tahiti. e. Guam. Answer: c Page: 475 21. In their attempt to control the spice trade in the Indian Ocean, the Europeans during the period between the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries a. achieved a monopoly. b. used an alliance with southern Indian princes to achieve success. c. were never able to displace the Chinese monopoly. d. used their seemingly godlike advantage in technology to establish a theocracy. e. met with limited success because of a lack of personnel. Answer: e Page: 475 22. The Portuguese dominance of trade was dependent on their ability to a. force the native populations to convert to Christianity. b. form alliances with Chinese princes to take advantage of the large Chinese navy. c. force merchant ships to call at fortified trading sites and pay duties. d. conquer territories and bring them permanently into their growing empire. e. take advantage of their huge population to overwhelm their adversaries. Answer: c Page: 476 23. Hormuz, Goa, and Melaka were all seized in the early 1500s by a. Vasco da Gama. b. Afonso d’Alboquerque. c. Francis Drake. d. Zheng He. e. James Cook. Answer: b Page: 476 24. Which of the following cities was NOT a Portuguese trading post? a. Goa b. Hormuz c. Melaka d. Bombay e. São Jorge da Mina Answer: d Page: 476 25. In the end, Portugal was unable to maintain its early domination of trade because a. it was a small country with a small population. b. a Chinese resurgence of naval exploration forced the Portuguese out. c. a late outbreak of the bubonic plague in the seventeenth century killed half the country’s population. d. the English, French, and Dutch formed a lasting alliance designed to force the Portuguese to surrender. e. the Portuguese tired of the expenses of naval exploration and focused on their European land empire. Answer: a Page: 477 26. Which of the following was NOT an advantage the English and Dutch had over the Portuguese? a. They possessed faster, cheaper, and more powerful ships. b. They created joint-stock companies. c. They had much better captains. d. They were wealthier countries. e. They had much larger populations. Answer: c Page: 477-478 27. The VOC was the a. English East India Company. b. indirect trade route that Portuguese mariners used to take advantage of wind patterns. c. Portuguese missionary organization that spread Christianity along the trade routes. d. United East India Company. e. European multinational organization, Victory Over China, that focused on Asian expansion. Answer: d Page: 478 28. The Philippines fell to a. James Cook. b. Jan Pieterszoon Coen. c. Miguel López de Legazpi. d. Ferdinand Magellan. e. Zheng He. Answer: c Page: 480 29. The center of the Spanish commercial activity in Asia was a. Manila. b. Batavia. c. Bombay. d. Melaka. e. Hawai`i. Answer: a Page: 480 30. Under Spanish rule of the Philippines, the native population a. was allowed to follow their own religious traditions. b. was encouraged to pursue a syncretic brand of Christianity. c. converted almost exclusively to Islam. d. followed a classical European north-south Protestant-Catholic geographic split. e. was pressured to convert to Roman Catholicism. Answer: e Page: 480 31. Jan Pieterszoon Coen was responsible for a. forcing the population of Indonesia to convert to Christianity. b. founding the city of Batavia on the island of Java. c. bringing the Philippines under Dutch control. d. establishing the United East India Company. e. the third circumnavigation of the globe. Answer: b Page: 480 32. The Dutch policy in Indonesia was to a. control the production of spices. b. convert the population to Christianity. c. rule the native population through strict control. d. introduce new agricultural products to find a cash crop. e. control financial institutions but leave the fighting to their French allies. Answer: a Page: 480 33. The most prosperous country in Europe in the seventeenth century was a. England. b. France. c. Spain. d. the Netherlands. e. Russia. Answer: d Page: 480 34. Russian territorial expansion into northern Eurasia began in the a. fifteenth century. b. sixteenth century. c. seventeenth century. d. eighteenth century. e. nineteenth century. Answer: b Page: 481 35. Russian merchants and explorers began the expansion into Siberia in the quest for a. gold. b. silver. c. copper. d. furs. e. iron. Answer: d Page: 482 36. In the long term, the Columbian exchange a. brought a lasting decline in population because of the ravages of diseases such as smallpox. b. had very little influence on world population figures. c. led to economic instability because of a glut of Chinese silver. d. barely broke even financially e. increased world population because of the spread of new food crops. Answer: e Page: 487-488 37. From 1500 to 1800, the largest contingent of migrants consisted of a. enslaved Africans. b. Hindu Indians fleeing religious persecution. c. northern Europeans seeking economic opportunity in the Americas. d. Chinese peasant families fleeing recurring outbreaks of disease. e. southern Europeans seeking political freedom in the Americas. Answer: a Page: 488 38. By 1750, all parts of the world participated in a global trade network in which Europeans played dominant roles, EXCEPT a. China. b. South America. c. Australia. d. India. e. Africa. Answer: c Page: 489 TRUE/FALSE 39. The Portuguese ventured into the open Atlantic Ocean seeking fish, seals, whales, timber, and lands where they could grow wheat. Answer: True Page: 467 40. Alongside material incentives, the goal of expanding the boundaries of Christianity also drove Europeans into the larger world. Answer: True Page: 467 41. The astrolabe was a simplified version of an instrument used by Roman astronomers to determine latitude. Answer: False Page: 468-469 42. Spanish mariners developed a strategy called the volta do mar that enabled them to sail from the Canaries to Spain. Answer: False Page: 469 43. When Christopher Columbus returned to Spain, he reported to his royal sponsors that he had reached the islands just off the coast of Asia. Answer: True Page: 471 44. Ferdinand Magellan was killed in a political dispute in the Philippines, and of his five ships and 280 men only one ship with 18 men returned to Spain. Answer: True Page: 474-475 45. The goal of the Portuguese in establishing a trading-post empire was to conquer new territories. Answer: False Page: 476 46. The English merchants formed an especially powerful joint-stock company, the East India Company. Answer: True Page: 478-479 47. The settlers who established a Russian presence in Siberia included social misfits, convicted criminals, and even prisoners of war. Answer: True Page: 483 48. The Seven Years’ War laid the foundation for 150 years of Spanish imperial hegemony in the world. Answer: False Page: 483 ESSAY 49. In Christopher Columbus’s journals, he suggested to the king and queen of Spain that they focus on converting the peoples of the Americas because “in a short time you will end up having converted to our Holy Faith a multitude of peoples and acquired large dominions and great riches.” How does this brief statement express the European goals for exploration? Why did the Europeans explore? 50. Why didn’t powerful countries like China, India, and Japan take a concerted interest in exploring? In your answer consider financial, societal, and geographic factors. 51. Examine the western European conquest of the Philippines and Indonesia. How was this different from the role they played in trading with powers such as China? What did the areas that fell completely under European control have in common? 52. What developments and discoveries were important in the process of western European exploration? 53. Examine the technological innovations that allowed for European exploration. How many of those innovations came from Europe originally? What other factors helped make sailing that far possible? 54. Examine the early Portuguese exploration and dominance in trade. What made this dominance possible? Why didn’t their early advantage last? 55. Examine the growth of worldwide trade from 1500 to 1800. Discuss the rise and implications of a global trading system. 56. Discuss the implications of the Columbian exchange. What crops and animals were being shipped back and forth? Was there a negative side to this exchange? What would be the longterm consequences? 57. What is it about the western Europeans that might explain this period of exploration? Why didn’t this exploration happen earlier or elsewhere? 58. What role has disease played in world history up through and including the period of the Columbian exchange? Be sure to consider the bubonic plague in China and Europe as well as the smallpox epidemics that struck the Americas. 59. Explore the differing approaches to exploration, trade, and colonization of the western European nations. What might explain these differences? How would these different approaches influence the areas being explored and colonized? 60. Look at the illustration of the silk road on page 467. Why was the silk road so important? What was the significance of the Europeans finding an alternate route and avoiding the silk road? How did this exploration impact the Europeans, the Islamic empires that formed the intermediaries of the silk road, and the rest of the world? 61. After reading the selection from Christopher Columbus’s journal on, can you tell what Columbus’s motives were for exploration? (See Textbook: Sources from the Past: Christopher Columbus’s First Impressions of the American Peoples.) 62. Read the Christopher Columbus section (see Textbook: Sources from the Past: Christopher Columbus’s First Impressions of the American Peoples). What were Columbus’s impressions of the peoples he encountered? 63. What specific motives prompted European overseas voyages? Of all these motives, which do you think took precedence? 64. What was Columbus’s goal in setting forth across the Atlantic in 1492? Was his voyage successful? 65. What was the significance of Magellan’s voyage of 1519-1522? What were the some of the challenges for explorers of the Pacific Ocean? 66. What factors contributed to the dramatic economic growth and the ensuing population growth of Russia in the eighteenth century? 67. What were some of the striking aspects of the battle for Hormuz, as recounted by Afonso d’Alboquerque (see Textbook: Sources from the Past: Afonso D’Alboquerque Seizes Hormuz)? What was the strategic importance of Hormuz? 68. How were the English and Dutch trading companies organized and administered? How were these companies able to establish themselves in Asia? 69. Compare the Spanish conquest of the Philippines with the Dutch conquest of Indonesia. What kind of colony emerged in each case? 70. What factors led to the Seven Years’ War in the eighteenth century? What was the outcome, globally, of that conflict? 71. What were some of the positive aspects of the Columbian exchange? What were some of the destructive aspects of this exchange? Give some specific examples. 72. Overall, what was the demographic impact (demography concerns the health and size of populations) of European contact with the New World?