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NOTE: This is a mock exam. It does not necessarily reflect all the material that you will be required to know for the exam. This is to be used to gain appreciation of EXAM FORMAT ONLY. THIS EXAM WILL NOT NECESSARILY REFLECT EXAM CONTENT OR MATERIAL THAT HAS BEEN COVERED FOR YOUR EXAM!!!!!!! The Final exam will consist of questions of similar format AND extended questions of 1 – 2 paragraph length answers. EOSC 110 Mid Term Answer all questions. 1. In the earliest stage of its development, the universe was probably in which of the following states? Circle the correct answer (1) a. Hot, Dense and Small b. Cool, Dense and Small c. Hot and clumped into regions of high and low concentrations of gas d. Composed of Hydrogen and Helium e. a and d f. b and d 2. Which of the following are the most common minerals at the surface of the Earth? Circle the correct answer (1) a. carbonates b. sulfides c. granite d. silicates e. basalt 3. Which of the following have been proposed as mechanisms for plate motion? a. mantle convection b. ridge push c. gravity sliding d. partial melting of oceanic crust e. a, b and c f. a, b and d 4. List 3 specific pieces of evidence that Wegner used in proposing that the continents were once all joined together and subsequently drifted to their current locations. (3) Many to choose from but here are three: Apparent fit of the continents Mesosaurus – fresh water reptile but found in Africa AND South America Fossil corals (evidence of tropical environments) found present day temperate or arctic conditions FIGURE 1. Mid Atlantic Ridge San Andreas Fault system X You could pace an X along any of the transform faults that cut the mid ocean ridges X East Pacific Rise 5. Refer to figure 1. What can you deduce about the relative (no figures required!!) spreading rates between the Mid Atlantic Ridge and the East Pacific Rise? Explain your answer (2) MAR spreading slower than EPR: EPR has more ocean floor represented per time unit indicating that More lava has been produced. 6. Indicate on figure 1 with an “x” where you can find a transform plate boundary (1) 7. Which of the following statements regarding the rock cycle is TRUE? Circle your choice (1) a. b. c. d. e. Every rock must go through each stage of the cycle. Sedimentary must always pass though a metamorphic phase before being uplifted and eroded. Some stages of the cycle may be omitted. Metamorphic rocks will always be melted to form a magma and eventually an igneous rock. The rock cycle only operates in a very hot / humid climates. 8. a. In terms of plate boundary temperatures subduction zones are relatively cool. What important factor is permitting the melting of rocks to form magma? (1) Water b. What type of plutonic and volcanic rocks would you expect to be formed from the magma generated at a mid ocean ridge (2) Gabbro / Basalt c. What type of volcano would be most likely be produced above a hot spot on an oceanic plate and would it be more or less dangerous than the volcano in the Andes? Explain your reasoning (3) Shield volcano – low profile volcano. Less explosive Low profile and reduces explosively due to relatively low viscosity of the basalt lava that would be produced In that area. d. What type of lava would you expect on Hawaii and from what and how would is it derived? (3) Basalt – Partial melting of peridotite in the asthenosphere - Hot spot activity 9. Why does basalt lava contain vesicles? (3) Pressure occurs when lava is erupted This causes gasses to come out of solution (like bubbles forming in a beer when the top removed) Due to low viscosity of basalt (due to low silica) bubbles can pass freely through the lava 10. Which of the following statements about weathering is FALSE? Circle your choice (1) a. Physical processes are a very important weathering factor in arid regions. b. Minerals with early, high crystallization temperatures are the most stable at surface conditions. c. Frost wedging is the same process that can crack open an engine block of a car. d. Exfoliation is the process whereby large flat or curved sheets of rock are fractured and detached from an outcrop. e. Minerals with late, low crystallization temperatures are the most stable at surface conditions. 11. Explain why mafic igneous rocks weather faster than felsic igneous rocks. (2) Mafic minerals – high crystallization temps – therefore most unstable at surface temperatures and pressure They are the most “out of equilibrium” with surface conditions. 12. Describe the overall maturity you would expect from a clastic sediment deposited close to mountains. (5) Rock would be immature: Poorly sorted Angular grains Mineralogically immature (rock fragments, unstable mineral components) Coarse grained 13. What is diagenesis? 2) Process by which a sediment is transformed into a sedimentary rock 14. Where would you expect to find carbonate oozes deposited? (2) Deep ocean 15. Why are damp sands angle of repose higher than that of dry sand? (2) Moist sand grains tend to “stick together” permitting a steeper angle 16. Which one of the following statements is FALSE? Circle your choice (1) a. A theory is only considered to be scientific if it can never be disproved. b. Scientific theories are based on repeated observations and tests. c. A hypothesis is an unproved explanation for why things happen the way they do. d. The scientific method relies on the use of evidence that can be seen and tested.