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Noun formation.
I. Forming nouns from verbs.
A. We can form nouns from many verbs (mostly those of Latin origin) by adding different endings.
1. The endings -or & -er are used to make nouns describing people:
to kill
to wait
to direct
to act
to teach
to train
2. The ending -ment is used mostly to make nouns describing results of actions:
to improve
to enjoy
to enhance
to require
to excite
to achieve
3. The endings -ion & -tion are used mostly to describe processes or conclusions of processes:
to identify
to progress
to admit
to participate
to suspend
to explain
to permit
B. We can form nouns from verbs of other origins irregularly.
1. With some words, a vowel sound in the word will change. Usually this change shortens the vowel. Sometimes the ending will
change as well.
to sing
to choose
to shoot
to freeze
to feed
2. With some words, the noun form is the same as the verb.
to show
to lift
to plan
to shout
3. With some words we can add an ending to make it a noun.
to know
II. Forming nouns from adjectives.
A. We can form nouns from many adjectives (mostly those of Latin origin) by changing their endings.
1. Nouns with the ending -ity are usually, but not always, formed from adjectives with the ending -ive:
active
creative
but secure
passive
but similar
but to identify
2. Nouns with the ending -ce are usually, but not always, formed from adjectives with the ending -ant or -ent:
different
ignorant
but to defend
perseverant
competent
diligent
confident
B. We can make nouns from adjectives by removing endings such as -al, -ful, -able.
intellectual
beautiful
successful
knowledgeable
C. We can add the ending -ness to adjectives to make nouns usually to describing a characteristic.
quiet
polite
D. Some adjectives of a non-Latin origin form nouns irregularly. Usually, both the vowel shortens and the ending changes.
wide
deep
long
III. Forming nouns from nouns.
We can make nouns from other nouns by adding different endings:
A. The ending -dom is used to make nouns that describe domain:
king
but free
B. The ending -hood is used to make nouns that describe condition or a group:
neighbor
child
C. The ending -ship is used to make nouns that describe condition or skill:
friend
craftsman
Forming antonyms.
We can make some antonyms using prefixes.
I. Some words take the prefix in- to make antonyms.
dependent
attentive
equality
formal
But, depending on the spelling of the word, the prefix may be slightly different.
Words beginning with p or m take the prefix im- to make antonyms.
mature
possible
Words beginning with L take the prefix il- to make antonyms.
liberal
logical
II. Some words take the prefix un- to make antonyms.
natural
kind
III. Some words take the prefix non- to make antonyms.
sense
basic
man