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Chapter 7: Leading and Trust
Leading and Trust
7
CHANGES IN CHAPTER 7: 6/E FROM 5/E

The first section has been redone and retitled.

The normative leadership theory has been updated to include Vroom’s latest (2000) version of the
model.

The situational leadership model exhibit has been deleted.

The situational supervision model has been changed by adding arrows to make it easier to
understand.

The Diversity of Global Leadership section has been reorganized and updated to include specific
country differences in leadership, e-organizations, and online leadership.

Trust has been added as a new section, with a new key term (trust), a learning outcome (7), two new
Exhibits (7-8 Three Levels and Five Dimensions of Trust and 7-9 The Johari Window), and two
work applications (12-13). There is also a new Self-Assessment Exercise (7-3), to assess
trustworthiness. Subsections include types of trust and developing trust (with tips).

There is a new Self-Assessment Exercise, 7-4, to assess how personality affects leadership and trust.

The case company information has been changed to Motorola, and Kim Roger’s name has been
changed to Carl Thomson.

There is a new skill-building exercise (7-3) on self-disclosure to develop trust (Johari Window).
Lussier: Human Relations, 6/e
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Chapter 7: Leading and Trust
LECTURE OUTLINE PLUS
I. HOW LEADERSHIP AFFECTS BEHAVIOR, HUMAN RELATIONS, AND PERFORMANCE
Key term: Leadership is the process of influencing employees to work toward the achievement of
objectives.
A leader using one style will behave differently than another leader using a different style. The leader's
style also affects the type of human relations between the leader and followers. Leaders can affect
followers’ performance, but not always.
A. LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT ARE NOT THE SAME
You can be a manager due to your position, but your position doesn't mean you can influence employees
as a true leader.
Work Application (WA 1): Give detailed reasons why leadership skills are important to a specific
organization.
Sample answer: Leadership is in my mind the most fundamental trait necessary to be an effective
supervisor. Without a respected leader, people within the group will take advantage and not work as hard
to achieve the goals. Although leadership is very important, it is also important to have a happy medium
where the employees also feel like they count too.
Learning Outcome (LO 1): Explain what leadership is and how it affects behavior, human relations,
and performance.
Leadership is the process of influencing employees to work toward the achievement of objectives. A
leader using one style will behave differently than another leader using a different style. The leader's
style also affects the type of human relations between the leader and followers. Leaders can affect
followers’ performance, but not always.
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Chapter 7: Leading and Trust
II. LEADERSHIP TRAIT THEORY
Key term: The Leadership Trait Theory assumes that distinctive physical and psychological
characteristics accounting for effective leadership.
Inconclusive Findings. Researchers tried to identify a set of characteristics that successful leaders
possess. If there were such a list one could compare candidates to the list and only appoint those people
who would be successful. However, they could not come up with a universal list; so much less research is
now done in this area.
A. THE GHISELLI STUDY
This study concluded that there is no universal list of traits. However, there are six traits, which are
important. 1. Supervisory ability, 2. need for occupational achievement, 3. intelligence, 4. decisiveness,
5. self-assurance, 6. initiative.
B. CURRENT STUDIES
Some researchers are still trying to identity important traits to leadership, even though there is agreement
that there is no universal set of traits.
Self-Assessment Exercise 7-1: Supervisory Traits
Learning Outcome (LO 2): Describe leadership trait theory.
Leadership trait theory assumes that distinct physical and psychological characteristics accounting for
effective leadership. According to Ghiselli, the major leadership traits needed for success are:
supervisory ability, the need for occupational achievement, intelligence, decisiveness, self-assurance, and
initiative.
Work Application (WA 2) What are your views on trait leadership theory? Recall a manager you have
or had. Which of Ghiselli's six traits does (or did) the person have? Which traits does (or did) the person
lack?
Sample answer: I do not believe that leaders are born and not made. Some of these traits may be
hereditary though, like in the Kennedy family. But others, like supervisory skills may be taught and
developed. My supervisor possessed all six of these traits whether she knew it or not.
Lussier: Human Relations, 6/e
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Chapter 7: Leading and Trust
III. BEHAVIORAL LEADERSHIP THEORIES
Key term: Behavioral leadership theories assume that there are distinctive styles which effective leaders
use consistently. They were looking for the one best leadership style to use in all situations.
A. BASIC LEADERSHIP STYLES
They are autocratic, democratic, and laissez-faire. You have most likely heard of these styles before
taking this course.
B. TWO-DIMENSIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLES
At the Ohio State University and University of Michigan they conducted research which concluded that
supervisors interact with employees on two dimensions: initiating structure—job-centered, or
consideration—employee-centered styles. Both Universities developed major leadership styles shown in
Exhibit 7.1.
Exhibit 7.1: The Two-Dimensional Model may be shown to illustrate the four styles.
1. Structuring and consideration styles.
2. Job-centered and employee-centered styles.
3. Using leadership styles.
C. THE LEADERSHIP GRID
Exhibit 7-1: Two Dimensional Leadership Models
Application Situation (AS 7-1): Two-Dimensional Leadership Styles
1. B–2. The supervisor is giving direct structure while showing consideration for Bill.
2. D–4. This is low consideration and structure the manager is not being of help.
3. A–1. The manager is giving specific structure with no consideration.
4. B–2. The supervisor is giving structured directions, while showing consideration- you're new, I'll help.
5. C–3. The manager is building up the employees’ confidence, high consideration, without giving direct
structure.
Key term: The Leadership Grid. Blake and Mounton's model identifying the ideal leadership style as
having a high concern for both production and people.
Exhibit 7.2: May be shown to illustrate the five leadership styles.
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Chapter 7: Leading and Trust
The five major styles are:
(1,1) impoverished manager
(9,1) sweatshop manager
(1,9) country club manager
(5,5) organized man manager
(9,9) team manager
Work Application (WA 3) What are your views on the Leadership Grid? Recall a manager you have or
had. Which of the five styles does or did the supervisor use?
Sample answer: While working at GE my supervisor used the 5,5 organized manager approach. As long
as we got our standard amount of work done he did not care what we did. If we got the work done in the
morning he would sit around with us in the afternoon, or let us do what we wanted to.
D. TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP
It focuses on the need for managers to (1) recognize the need for revitalization, (2) create a new vision,
and (3) institutionalizing the change. It is associated more with top managers rather than supervisors.
1. Charismatic Leadership
2. Transactional Leadership
Learning Outcome (LO 3): List and describe four behavioral leadership theories.
Behavioral leadership theories assume that there are distinctive styles which effective leaders use
consistently. The four theories are:
1. Basic leadership style. Autocratic, democratic, laissez-faire.
2. Two-dimensional leadership styles. Structuring and consideration styles-Ohio State and Job-centered
and Employee-centered styles-University of Michigan.
3. The Leadership Grid. Blake and Mounton's model identifying the ideal leadership style as having a
high concern for both production and people.
4. Transformational leadership. Leaders bring about change, innovation, and entrepreneurship by taking
the organization through three acts.
Application Situation (AS 7-2): The Leadership Grid
6. B. 1,9. This is the result of country club leadership.
7. D. 5,5. The organized man gets middle of road results in both morale and productivity.
8. F. 9,9. The team manager usually gets the best results in both.
9. C. 9,1. Some sweatshop managers get high production, but not all. However, they usually have low
morale.
10. A. 1,1. The impoverished manager usually has low results in both.
Lussier: Human Relations, 6/e
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Chapter 7: Leading and Trust
IV. CONTINGENCY LEADERSHIP THEORIES
Key term: Contingency leadership theories assume that the appropriate leadership style varies from
situation to situation.
A. CONTINGENCY LEADERSHIP THEORY
Key term: Fiedler's contingency leadership theory model is used to determine whether a leadership style
is task or relationship oriented, and whether the situation matches the style.
The three important aspects of this theory are:
(1) Leadership style. The LPC scales are used to determine if one's preferred style is task or relationship
oriented.
(2) Situational favorableness. The three variables are: leader-member relations, task structure, and
position power.
(3) Determining the appropriate leadership style.
Exhibit 7.3: Fiedler's Contingency Theory Model may be shown to determine the appropriate leadership
style for a given situation.
Answer the three questions and follow the decision tree until you get to the end, which states the
appropriate style for the situation. If the style is your preferred style do nothing. If the appropriate style is
not your preferred style you should change the situation.
Work Application (WA 4): What are your views on Contingency Leadership Theory? Do you agree
with Fiedler's recommendation to change the situation rather than the leader's style?
Sample answer: I like this approach because of the boss I have now. My boss could not change styles, he
is task oriented and does not like people. He does not get much work done because of his poor relations,
and the fact that employees do not have clear goals. If this situation were changed so that we had clear
goals, we would not have to interact much with the boss; he would be in a more favorable situation for
his style.
Application Situation (AS 7-3): Contingency Leadership Theory
(It is helpful to answer the three questions in Exhibit 7-3 to get the answers.)
11. 5/B–Relations are poor, the task is structured, and the leader has strong power. Relationship-oriented
leadership is appropriate.
12. 8/A–Relations are poor, the task is unstructured, and power is weak. Task oriented leadership is
appropriate.
13. 2/A–Relations are good, the task is structured, and power is weak (Ron's manager enjoys hiring and
evaluating). Task-oriented.
14. 7/A-or-B–relations are poor, the task is unstructured, and power is strong. Either task or relationship
is appropriate.
15. 4/B–Relations are good, the task is unstructured, and power is weak. relationship-oriented leadership
is appropriate.
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B. LEADERSHIP CONTINUUM
Key term: Leadership continuum. Tannenbaum and Schmidt identified this continuum with boss-centered
vs. employee-centered leadership at the extremes.
Exhibit 7.4: Continuum of Leadership Behavior may be shown to list the seven leadership styles.
When selecting a style, the three factors to consider are:
1.The manager
2. The subordinates
3. The situation
Skill Building 7-2A: (Option A) Leadership Style Role-Play may be used to illustrate the different
Leadership Continuum Styles.
Work Application (WA 5): What are your views on the Leadership Continuum? Recall a supervisor
you have or had. Which of the seven styles does or did the supervisor use?
Sample answer: I like this model because it gives you flexibility to select one of seven styles on a
continuum. My boss last summer tended to use the #5 style. He used to present ideas to me about a task
that I would do, we talked about how to do the task, than he would make the decision on how I would do
it.
Application Situation (AS 7-4): Leadership Continuum
16. D4–This is a tentative decision, the manager will change if Samantha doesn't want to go.
17. A1–This is a decision resulting in a direct order.
18. C3–Ideas were presented with questions invited.
19. F6–The decision is left to the group, but they have clear limits. With style 7 the subordinates would
have greater leeway than to select an alternative.
20. E5–The manager has asked for suggestions, but has retained authority to make the actual decision.
C. NORMATIVE LEADERSHIP THEORY
Key term: Normative leadership theory. Vroom and Yetton's Decision Tree Model that enables the user
to select one of five leadership styles that is appropriate for the situation. The model is not shown until
Chapter 12 with group decision-making. The five leadership styles are:
1. Decide
2. Consult individually
3. Consult group
4. Facilitate
5. Delegate
Lussier: Human Relations, 6/e
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Chapter 7: Leading and Trust
Work Application (WA 6): What are your views on Normative Leadership Theory? Recall a manager
you have or had. Which of the five styles does or did the manager use?
Sample answer: I think that the Normative Leadership Theory is basically the same as the leader
continuum, only it has five leadership styles instead of seven; and it requires you to answer seven
questions. My boss used the GII style most of the time.
D. SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP
Key term: Situational leadership. Hersey and Blanchard's model for selecting one of four leadership
styles that fits the employees' maturity level in a given situation.
Learning Outcome (LO 4): List and describe four contingency leadership theories.
Contingency leadership theories assume that the appropriate leadership style varies from situation to
situation. The four theories are:
1. Contingency leadership theory: Fiedler's model used to determine whether leadership style is task or
relationship oriented, and whether the situation matches the style.
2. Leadership continuum: Tannenbaum and Schmidt's identified boss-centered and employee-centered
leadership at the extremes.
3. Normative leadership theory: Vroom and Yetton's Decision Tree Model that enables the user to select
one of five leadership styles that is appropriate for the situation.
4. Situational leadership: Hersey and Blanchard's model for selecting one of four leadership styles that
fits the employees' maturity level in a given situation.
Exhibit 7-5: Leadership Theories
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Chapter 7: Leading and Trust
V. SITUATIONAL SUPERVISION
Self-Assessment Exercise 7-2: Determining Your Preferred Supervisory Style
Say, “There are twelve situations calling for supervisory action. After selecting alternatives, there is a
heading ‘to determine your supervisory style’ followed by a box. After placing your selected alternatives
in the appropriate boxes and totaling responses in each of the four vertical columns, you have determined
your preferred supervisory style. Does everyone understand how to determine his or her style?”
Exhibit 7.6: Situational Supervision may be shown while covering this section.
BMV-7: Behavior Module 7, Situational Supervision, may be shown before, after, or in place this
section.
BMV-7: Illustrates the four leadership styles in Exhibit 7-6.
A. DEFINING THE SITUATION
Note: The following is not word for word out of the text.
Say, “The first thing to do is determine the capability level of the followers.”
(1) Low C-1. Unable and/or unwilling to perform task without directions from the supervisor.
(2) Moderate C-2. Somewhat able and willing to perform task. But need direction and support from
supervisor.
(3) High C-3. Able to do the task but may lack confidence or motivation to perform without supportive
behavior from supervisor.
(4) Outstanding C-4. Able and willing to perform task without directions or support from the supervisor.
B. USING THE APPROPRIATE SUPERVISORY STYLE
The style to use is based on the followers’ capability level. The four supervisory styles are:

Autocratic Style (S-A) involves high directive/low supportive behavior, and is appropriate when
interacting with low capability employees (C-1).

Consultative Style (S-C) involves high directive/high supportive behavior, and is appropriate when
interacting with moderate capability employees (C-2).

Participative Style (S-P) is characterized by low directive/high supportive behavior, and is
appropriate when interacting with high-capability employees (C3).

Laissez-faire Style (S-L) entails low directive/low supportive behavior, and is appropriate when
interacting with outstanding employees (C-4).
Lussier: Human Relations, 6/e
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Chapter 7: Leading and Trust
Exhibit 7-6: Situational Supervision Model
Learning Outcome (LO 5): Explain four situational supervisory styles.
The four styles are: Autocratic - high directive/low support. Consultative - high directive/high support.
Participative - low directive/high support. Laissez-faire - low directive/low support.
Skill Building 7-2B (Option B): A Leadership Style Role Play, may be used to illustrate the four
situational leadership styles. Or BMV-7 may be used to illustrate the four styles.
C. Applying the Situational Supervision Model
1. Determine employee capability level
2. Identify each supervisory style of all four alternatives
3. Select the appropriate style/behavior to match the employee capability level.
Video Exercise 7-1: Situational Supervision may be used with or without SB 7-1.
Skill Building 7.1: Situational Supervision may be used to develop students leadership ability. It is
helpful, but not necessary to view BMV-5 video module 7 before doing this exercise.
Work Application (WA 7): What are your views on situational supervision? Recall a manager you have
or had. Which of the four styles does or did the supervisor use? Would you use the model on the job?
Sample answer: From using this model in class I can see the logic and how feasible it is. My present
boss, a resident director (R.D.) on campus housing, uses the laissez-faire style. She lets me handle my
floor the way I want, so long as there are no problems. I use this model now as a resident assistant (R.A.),
when faced with problems on my floor. I will use it after I graduate as well.
Work Application (WA 8): Which of the four supervisory styles would you like your boss to use with
you? Why would you prefer this particular style?
Sample answer: I would like a boss who has a participative style when I graduate from college. I would
like this style because I could learn from my boss while also contributing my own ideas.
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Chapter 7: Leading and Trust
VI. PUTTING THE LEADERSHIP THEORIES TOGETHER
Exhibit 7-5, Leadership Theories, and more effectively 7-7, Leadership Styles: May be shown to
compare similarities and differences in leadership theories.
Work Application (WA 9): Which leadership theory/model do you prefer? Why?
Sample answer: I like situational supervision because it is designed to tell you which style to use in a
given situation, and it is quick and easy to use.
Work Application (WA 10): Describe the type of leader you want to be.
Sample answer: I want to be an effective and respected successful leader. I want to lead by example. I
will work hard, yet will be patient and diligent with my employees. I will use a lot of positive
reinforcement to lead and motivate employees.
VII. SUBSTITUTES FOR LEADERSHIP
Three characteristics may substitute for leadership: (1) subordinates, (2) task, (3) organization.
Work Application (WA 11): Do you agree that characteristics of subordinates, task, and the
organization can substitute for leadership directive and support? Explain your answer.
Sample answer: Kind of. It's the individual, or subordinate that counts. Some people need a lot of
directive and/or support from a manager while others don't.
Learning Outcome (LO 6): Identify three characteristics that substitute for leadership.
(1) subordinates, (2) task, (3) the organization.
VII. DIVERSITY OF GLOBAL LEADERSHIP
Japanese, European, and American leadership styles vary. And, the global e-organization is affecting
leadership.
Lussier: Human Relations, 6/e
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Chapter 7: Leading and Trust
VIII. TRUST
Self-Assessment Exercise 7-3: Trustworthiness
A. TYPES OF TRUST
Exhibit 7-8: Three Levels of Trust and Five Dimensions of Trust can be shown.
Key term: Trust is the positive expectation that another will not take advantage of you.
1. Deterrence-Based Trust. It is based on fear of reprisal if the trust is violated. It is how new relations
begin.
2. Knowledge-Based Trust. It is based on experience in dealing with others to predict behavior.
3. Identification-Based Trust. It is based on emotional connection-friendship. Employees look out for
each other’s best interest and act for the other; it is the highest level of trust.
Work Application (WA 12): Give an example of each of the three levels of trust you experienced on the
job.
Sample answer: When I first went to work at McDonald’s, I didn’t know anyone so I was on the
deterrence-based trust because I wanted to fit in. With time, I was on the knowledge-based trust with
most coworkers. I did make to friends, so we were on the identification-based trust level.
B. DEVELOPING TRUST
1.There are five dimensions of trust. Tips to develop trust are in the text.
1. Integrity—being honest, truthful, and sincere.
2. Competence—having technical and interpersonal knowledge, ability, and skill.
3. Consistency—using the same behavior in similar situations.
4. Loyalty—looking out for the interest of others.
5. Openness—accepting new ideas and change.
Learning Outcome (LO 7): Briefly describe the five dimensions of trust.
1. Integrity—being honest, truthful, and sincere.
2. Competence—having technical and interpersonal knowledge, ability, and skill.
3. Consistency—using the same behavior in similar situations.
4. Loyalty—looking out for the interest of others.
5. Openness—accepting new ideas and change.
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Chapter 7: Leading and Trust
2. Self-Disclosure and the Johari Window.
Exhibit 7-9: The Johari window may be shown.
3. Risk and Destroying Trust. Trust requires risk, and it is much easier to destroy than build trust.
Work Application (WA 13): What is your strongest and weakest dimension of trust at work? How will
you improve your trustworthiness? What tips will you implement?
Sample answer: I’d say my strongest is loyalty and my weakest is competency. I will do my best to
complete each task. I can also be more truthful at work, as I sometimes lie and don’t always tell it like it
is.
Self-Assessment Exercise 7-4: Your Personality and Leadership and Trust
Lussier: Human Relations, 6/e
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Chapter 7: Leading and Trust
LEARNING OUTCOME ANSWERS
LO 1. Explain what leadership is and how it affects behavior, human relations, and performance.
Leadership is the process of influencing employees to work toward the achievement of objectives. A
leader using one style will behave differently than another leader using a different style. The leader's
style also affects the type of human relations between the leader and followers. Leaders can affect
followers’ performance, but not always.
LO 2. Describe leadership trait theory.
Leadership trait theory assumes that distinct physical and psychological characteristics accounting for
effective leadership. According to Ghiselli, the major leadership traits needed for success are:
supervisory ability, the need for occupational achievement, intelligence, decisiveness, self-assurance, and
initiative.
LO 3. List and describe four behavioral leadership theories.
Behavioral leadership theories assume that there are distinctive styles which effective leaders use
consistently. The five theories are:
1. Basic leadership style: autocratic, democratic, laissez-faire.
2. Two-dimensional leadership styles: Structuring and consideration styles-Ohio State and job- and
employee-centered styles-University of Michigan.
3. The Managerial Grid: Blake and Mounton's model identifying the ideal leadership style as having a
high concern for both production and people.
4. Transformational leadership: leaders bring about change, innovation, and entrepreneurship by taking
the organization through three acts.
LO 4. List and describe four contingency leadership theories.
Contingency leadership theories assume that the appropriate leadership style varies from situation to
situation. The four theories are:
1. Contingency leadership theory: Fiedler's model used to determine whether leadership style is task or
relationship oriented, and whether the situation matches the style.
2. Leadership continuum: Tannenbaum and Schmidt's identified boss-centered and employee-centered
leadership at the extremes.
3. Normative leadership theory: Vroom and Yetton's Decision Tree Model that enables the user to select
one of five leadership styles that is appropriate for the situation.
4. Situational leadership: Hersey and Blanchard's model for selecting one of four leadership styles that
fits the employees' maturity level in a given situation.
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Chapter 7: Leading and Trust
LO 5. Explain four situational supervisory styles.
The four styles are:
Autocratic - high directive/low support.
Consultative - high directive/high support.
Participative - low directive/high support.
Laissez-faire - low directive/low support.
LO 6. Identify three characteristics that substitute for leadership.
(1) subordinates (2) task (3) the organization
LO 7. Briefly describe the five dimensions of trust.
1. Integrity—being honest, truthful, and sincere.
2. Competence—having technical and interpersonal knowledge, ability, and skill.
3. Consistency—using the same behavior in similar situations.
4. Loyalty—looking out for the interest of others.
5. Openness—accepting new ideas and change.
Lussier: Human Relations, 6/e
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Chapter 7: Leading and Trust
WORK APPLICATION SAMPLE ANSWERS
(WA 1) Give detailed reasons why leadership skills are important to a specific organization.
Sample answer: Leadership is in my mind the most fundamental trait necessary to be an effective
supervisor. Without a respected leader, people within the group will take advantage and not work as hard
to achieve the goals. Although leadership is very important, it is also important to have a happy medium
where the employees also feel like they count too.
(WA 2) What are your views on trait leadership theory? Recall a manager you have or had.
Which of Ghiselli's six traits does or did the person have? Which traits does or did the person
lack?
Sample answer: I do not believe that leaders are born and not made. Some of these traits may be
hereditary though, like in the Kennedy family. But others, like supervisory skills may be taught and
developed. My supervisor possessed all six of these traits whether she knew it or not.
(WA 3) What are your views on the Managerial Grid? Recall a manager you have or had. Which
of the five styles does or did the supervisor use?
Sample answer: While working at GE my supervisor used the 5,5 organized manager approach. As long
as we got our standard amount of work done he did not care what we did. If we got the work done in the
morning he would sit around with us in the afternoon, or let us do what we wanted to.
(WA 4) What are your views on Contingency Leadership Theory? Do you agree with Fiedler's
recommendation to change the situation rather than the leader's style?
Sample answer: I like this approach because of the boss I have now. My boss could not change styles, he
is task oriented and does not like people. He does not get much work done because of his poor relations,
and the fact that employees do not have clear goals. If this situation were changed so that we had clear
goals, we would not have to interact much with the boss; he would be in a more favorable situation for
his style.
(WA 5) What are your views on the Leadership Continuum? Recall a manager you have or had.
Which of the seven style does or did the supervisor use?
Sample answer: I like this model because it gives you flexibility to select one of seven styles on a
continuum. My boss last summer tended to use the #5 style. He used to present ideas to me about a task
that I would do, we talked about how to do the task, than he would make the decision on how I would do
it.
(WA 6) What are your views on Normative Leadership Theory? Recall a manager you have or
had. Which of the five styles does or did the manager use?
Sample answer: I think that the Normative Leadership Theory is basically the same as the leader
continuum, only it has five leadership styles instead of seven; and it requires you to answer seven
questions.
(WA 7) What are your views on situational supervision? Recall a manager you have or had.
Which of the four styles does or did the supervisor use? Would you use the model on the job?
Sample answer: From using this model in class I can see the logic and how feasible it is. My present
boss, a resident director (R.D.) on campus housing, uses the laissez-faire style. She lets me handle my
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Chapter 7: Leading and Trust
floor the way I want, so long as there are no problems. I use this model now as a resident assistant (R.A.),
when faced with problems on my floor. I will use it after I graduate as well.
Lussier: Human Relations, 6/e
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Chapter 7: Leading and Trust
(WA 8) Which of the four supervisory styles would you like your boss to use with you? Why
would you prefer this particular style?
Sample answer: I would like a boss who has a participative style when I graduate from college. I would
like this style because I could learn from my boss while also contributing my own ideas.
(WA 9) Which leadership theory/model do you prefer? Why?
Sample answer: I like situational supervision because it is designed to tell you which style to use in a
given situation, and it is quick and easy to use.
(WA 10) Describe the type of leader you want to be.
Sample answer: I want to be an effective and respected successful leader. I want to lead by example. I
will work hard, yet will be patient and diligent with my employees. I will use a lot of positive
reinforcement to lead and motivate employees.
(WA 11) Do you agree that characteristics of subordinates, task, and the organization can
substitute for leadership directive and support? Explain your answer.
Sample answer: Kind of. It's the individual, or subordinate that counts. Some people need a lot of
directive and/or support from a manager while others don't.
(WA 12) Give an example of each of the three levels of trust you experienced on the job.
Sample answer: When I first went to work at McDonald’s, I didn’t know anyone so I was on the
deterrence-based trust because I wanted to fit in. With time, I was on the knowledge-based trust with
most coworkers. I did make to friends, so we were on the identification-based trust level.
(WA 13) What is your strongest and weakest dimension of trust at work? How will you improve
your trustworthiness? What tips will you implement?
Sample answer: I’d say my strongest is loyalty and my weakest is competency. I will do my best to
complete each task. I can also be more truthful at work, as I sometimes lie and don’t always tell it like it
is.
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APPLICATION SITUATION ANSWERS
(AS 7-1) Two-Dimensional Leadership Styles
1. B 2–The supervisor is giving direct structure while showing consideration for Bill.
2. D 4–This is low consideration and structure the manager is not being of help.
3. A 1–The manager is giving specific structure with no consideration.
4. B 2–The supervisor is giving structured directions, while showing consideration- you're new, I'll help.
5. C 3–The manager is building up the employees’ confidence, high consideration, without giving direct
structure.
(AS 7-2) The Leadership Grid
6. B 1,9–This is the results of country club leadership.
7. D 5,5–The organized man gets middle of road results in both morale and productivity.
8. F 9,9–The team manager usually gets the best results in both.
9. C 9,1–Some sweatshop managers get high production, but not all. However, they usually have low
morale.
10. A 1,1–The impoverished manager usually has low results in both.
Contingency Leadership Theory, AS-7.3
11. 5/B–Relations are poor, the task is structured, and the leader has strong power. Relationship-oriented
leadership is appropriate.
12. 8/A–Relations are poor, the task is unstructured, and power is weak. Task oriented leadership is
appropriate.
13. 2/A–Relations are good, the task is structured, and power is weak (Ron's manager enjoys hiring and
evaluating). Task-oriented.
14. 7/A-or-B–relations are poor, the task is unstructured, power is strong. Either task or relationship is
appropriate.
15. 4/B–Relations are good, the task is unstructured, power is weak. relationship-oriented leadership is
appropriate.
(AS 7-3) Leadership Continuum
16. D 4–This is a tentative decision, the manager will change if Samantha doesn't want to go.
17. A 1–This is a decision resulting in a direct order.
18. C 3–Ideas were presented with questions invited.
19. F 6–The decision is left to the group, but they have clear limits. With style 7 the subordinates would
have greater leeway than to select an alternative.
20. E 5–The manager has asked for suggestions, but has retained authority to make the actual decision.
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Chapter 7: Leading and Trust
CASE—ANSWERS
Carl Thomson—Motorola
Note: As stated in the case reference, Carl Thomson is not an actual manager at Motorola. Thus, students
can get updated information on Motorola, but not on Carl.
1. Is Carl Thomson a manager and/or leader in the parts and design departments?
In the parts department he was a manager and a leader, as Carl influenced employees. However, in the
design department, he was a manager but not a leader, as he did not influence employees.
2. Which leadership theories are illustrated in Carl’s success in one department and problems in
another department?
Contingency leadership theories assume that the appropriate leadership style varies from situation to
situation. In the parts department, Carl used the appropriate leadership style. However, the same style
was not appropriate for the design department.
3. Using Exhibit 7-3, Fiedler’s Contingency Leadership Model, what situation and leadership style
are appropriate for the parts production department and for the custom design department?
In the production department, Carl had (1) good relations, (2) the task was repetitive, and (3) he had
strong power. This is situation 1, and a task leadership style is appropriate.
In the design department, Carl (1) had poor relations, (2) the task was non-repetitive, and (3) his power
was strong. This is situation 7, and a relationship leadership style is appropriate. Thus, Carl is using the
wrong leadership style in the design department situations, which is causing his leadership problems that
did not exist when he used this style, which was correct in the parts production department.
4. What would Fiedler and Kerr and Jermier recommend that Carl do to improve department
performance?
They would recommend changing the situation, not the leadership style. If Carl develops a good
relationship with employees and does not rely on his position power, he will be in situation 4 and a
relationship leadership style would be appropriate. Or this is how he could turn the situation around to
become a successful manager in the design department.
5. Using Exhibit 7-6, which capability level are the employees in the design department on? Using
the text material, which supervisory leadership style would you recommend Carl use in this
situation to be a successful leader? Is it the style Carl is using?
The capability level is high, and the appropriate leadership style is participative. Carl is not using this
style. The design department employees were able and willing to do the job. However, Carl has caused
them to be able and unwilling to do the job his way. Thus, Carl needs to change his leadership style to
stop being high directive oriented and use a high supportive oriented participative leadership style. Once
he stops tell employees what to do and builds a relationship with them, things will go well.
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Chapter 7: Leading and Trust
CUMULATIVE CASE QUESTIONS
6. Personality (Chapter 2) is best associated with which leadership theory?
Personality is made up of traits. Thus, personality is best associated with the trait theory of leadership.
7. What is the role of communication (Chapter 4 & 5) in leadership?
Leadership is the process of influencing employees to work toward the achievement of objectives. To
influence employees, managers must effectively communication the objectives, and they must motivate
the employees to achieve the objectives. Or without communications there is no leadership.
8. How was contingency leadership theory presented in Chapter 5?
In Chapter 5 there is a section “Situational Communications.” Situational is another word for
contingency. Situational communications requires using the appropriate communication style for a given
situation. It is much like situational supervision. They both use capability level in determining the
appropriate style.
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Chapter 7: Leading and Trust
OBJECTIVE CASE 7 ANSWERS
The Clean Up Job
Note: There are no cases in the test bank. However, there are questions in the test bank that are similar to
case questions 1-10 to assess application ability.
1. A–Autocratic. Brenda did not allow any input.
2. A 1–Brenda was all business, there was not consideration for Rif.
3. B–High-consideration/high structure. Brenda knew Rif wouldn't want to do it, she should have shown
some consideration, like explaining why Rif had to do it.
4. B 9,1–Brenda used the sweatshop style, she was only concerned about getting the job done .
5. B–False. The recommended style in all situations is the 9,9 team managers.
6. 5/B–Relations are poor, the task is structured, and power is strong-Situation 5, relationship-oriented
leadership is need. According to Fiedler Brenda should change the situation not her leadership style.
7. A 1–Brenda made the decision that Rif would clean the cases alone and announced it to him.
8. D–Facilitate. Get the group together to discuss ways of getting the cleaning done. If they have good
ideas use them.
9. A–Autocratic. It was high in directive, low in support.
10. C–Participative. Get the group's ideas.
11. This situation calls for participation. The author would look into having non-meat cutters, who make
much less money, do the cleaning. Maybe a meat cutter could train someone, or work together, etc.
Together the group of meat cutters and supervisor should be able to come up with a system for getting the
cleaning done; that is agreeable and considered fair.
Role Play: Assume Rif complained to Brenda's boss. Have students role-play being Rif's boss talking to
Brenda about Rif's complaint.
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Chapter 7: Leading and Trust
VIDEO CASE
Profile of HP CEO Carly Fiorina
Total time (7 ½ minutes)
Carly Fiorina was named CEO of Hewlett-Packard, making her the first women to lead a large major US
corporation.
CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS
1. What are some of Carly’s traits that lead to her being CEO of HP?
As stated in the video, Carly has high energy, work hard, she works well with people, and she has a
positive self-concept. Students should be able to list other traits as well.
2. Which behavioral leadership style do you think Carly uses?
Answers will vary, but she may be considered a team leader on the leadership grid.
3. Is transformation leadership important at HP?
Yes, Carly was hired to transform HP in the 21 century based on the Internet.
4. Do you think Carly uses a contingency leadership approach as CEO of HP?
Yes, Carly did mention that her actions where different based on the situation with sexism.
5. As an employee, do you think you would trust Carly? Explain why or why not.
Answers will vary. You may ask if she has integrity, competence, consistency, loyalty, and openness.
6. Does being a women affect Carly’s leadership? Explain why or why not.
Answers will vary.
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Chapter 7: Leading and Trust
BEHAVIOR MODEL VIDEO
BMV-7 and Video Exercise 7-1
The video has module BMV-7 Situational Supervision. In the video, the MC briefly explains how to use
Exhibit 7.6 Situational Supervision. The MC applies the model to a situation similar to the 12 situations
in the text, following the three-step procedure. Students are told to determine which situational
supervisory style the sales managers is using to get the sales rep to turn in a late expense report.
In the four scenes, each of the supervisory styles are illustrated through skits to show the students the
type of directive and/or supportive behavior used with each style. Students are not told which styles the
supervisor used. You may opt to let the video run through then give the answers. If you do, have students
write down the scene number and style. Or, you may pause/stop the video when you see the pause sign
(after the MC says "what is Kelly's capability level? What supervisor style should Konrad use to get the
late expense report turned in now and in the future?" and after each scene) to allow students to select a
style then discuss it as a class.
The answers are given in a quick and instructional version. The instructional version is useful to illustrate
how to use the model during Skill Building Exercise 7.1. If you plan to use this exercise, you may want
to give the instructional answers. Before giving the answers you may allow the class to give their
answers.
Video Exercise Answers:
Scene 1.
D. Laissez-faire (S-L)
Scene 2.
C. Participative (S-P)
Scene 3.
A. Autocratic (S-A)
Scene 4.
B. Consultative (S-C)
Pause: After the MC says, "What is Kelly's capability level? What supervisor style should Konrad use to
get the late expense report turned in now and in the future?"
Quick answer: Kelly is on the moderate capability level she needs some direction and support to get the
job done. The consultative supervisory style is the most appropriate.
Instructional answer: When giving the answers you may want to show Exhibit 76. Or have students
turn to the text and look at the model.
Step 1 of the model calls for the user to determine the employee's capability level on the scale from C-1
Low to C-4 Outstanding. The employee in this situation is not at the C-1 Low level because of the ability
and willingness to do the job. (focus on C-1, top left, box.) The employee is on the C-2 Moderate level.
The employee needs some direction and support from the supervisor to get the job done. (focus on C-2
box) The employee is not at the C-3 High or C-4 Outstanding level of capability because of the
employee's need for direction. (focus on C-3 and C-4 box)
If you were doing any of the twelve situations in the text during skill building exercise you would write 2
on the C_____ to indicate the moderate capability level. (For illustrative purposes you can have students
open their text to see the C_____ where the 2 would be placed. Keep the text open for the next statement)
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Chapter 7: Leading and Trust
Step 2 of the model calls for identifying each of the four alternative styles. You would write the letters A,
C, and L on the S_____ that represents the style. In a minute, I will turn the video back on and we will
watch the four styles in action; rather than read them. Try to identify the style used by the sales manager
in each scene.
Pause- After Scene 1.
Quick answer: Laissez-faire style. The sales manager used low directive and low supportive behavior.
Instructional answer: We just saw the sales manager reminded Kelly that the report is late. Using the
model (you may want to show Exhibit 7-6) we should realize that this behavior is low in both direction
and support. Konrad simply reminded Kelly that the report was late, he gave no mention of when to get it
in, or encouragement to do so. Therefore, the laissez-faire style was used. If we were doing Skill Building
Exercise 7.1 you would put the letters L on the S
line. (you may want to have students open their
text to illustrate) Let's watch scene 2 and try to determine the style used. (put on video)
Pause- After Scene 2.
Quick answer: Participative style. The sales manager used high supportive low directive behavior.
Instructional answer: The sales manager discuss why the report was late, but he allowed the employee
to determine when to get the report in, by the end of the work day. Using the model (you may want to
project the model) we should understand that discussing the report is supportive behavior. Allowing the
employee to determine when to get the report in is low directive. Therefore, the supervisor used the
participative style. If we were doing Skill Building Exercise 7.1 you would put the letter P on the S
(put on the video)
Pause- After Scene 3.
Quick answer: Autocratic style. The sales manager used high directive low supportive behavior.
Instructional answer: In this scene the sales manager told the employee to do the report now. Using the
model (you may want to project it) we can see that this is high directive and low supportive behavior.
Therefore, the sales manager used the autocratic style. If we were doing Skill Building Exercise 7.1 you
would put the letter A on the S.
Pause- After Scene 4.
Quick answer: Consultative style. The sales manager used high directive and high supportive behavior
to get the report in.
Instructional answer: We just saw the sales manager discuss why the report is late, and he set a time
limit for completion. Using the model (you may want to project it) we should realize that discussing the
report is supportive behavior while setting a time limit is directive behavior. Therefore, the sales manager
used the consultative style. If we were doing Skill Building Exercise 7.1, you would put the letter C on
the S line.
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Chapter 7: Leading and Trust
VIDEO EXERCISE QUESTION ANSWERS
1. Kelly needs directive behavior not support; participative and laissez-faire do not provide directive
behavior.
2. Consultative and autocratic provide the directive behavior needed.
3. Consultative is most appropriate because it give directive and supportive behavior. Kelly is a good
worker; it’s not necessary to use the autocratic style.
ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION
After viewing the module (or during the discussion between scenes, change the order of questions Q1-S3,
Q2-S4, Q3-S2, Q4-S1- to correspond with video scenes. You may ask the class any or all of the following
questions. You may also add your own questions.
1. How successful would the supervisor be using the autocratic style? Are there any potential
problems with using this style in this situation?
Students should realize that with the capability level of moderate C-2, the supervisor would be over
supervising. This style could result in success at getting the reports in on time, but it could result in
hurting human relations and motivation. It could possibly affect sales performance if over used. This is
why it is not the most successful approach.
2. How successful would the supervisor be using the consultative style? Are there any potential
problems with using this style in this situation?
Students should realize that this style will result in the most success. It should not hurt human relations,
and it gets the report in quickly.
3. How successful would the supervisor be using the participative style? Are there any potential
problems with using this style in this situation?
Students should realize that this style is effective, but not the most successful. The report is already late,
by simply saying "get it in some time today" the sales representative may not realize the necessity of
getting it in on time. It may be in late in the future as well.
4. How successful would the supervisor be using the laissez-faire style? Are there any potential
problems with using this style in this situation?
This has basically the same answer as number three, but the potential problem of late reports in the future
is even greater. This style does not provide any directive, which is needed.
5. Will using the situational supervision model help managers do a good job? Why or why not?
6. As a manager will you use situational supervision? Why or why not?
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Instructor’s Manual
Chapter 7: Leading and Trust
Skill Building Exercise 7.1: Situational Supervision, may be used as a follow up to the video to develop this skill.
Instructional Conclusion: (Cut it down if you want to) In conclusion, the situational supervisor
determines the appropriate supervisory style to match the employee's capability level. In the situation, the
Consultative Supervisory Style matches the Moderate Capability Level of the employee. If the sales
manager elected to use this style he would have had the greatest success with the employee.
If we were scoring points for the appropriateness of each style, the consultative style would be the
highest with three points. Points will be given in situational supervision skill building exercise. The
participative style may also be successful at getting the employee to get the report in. However, with the
need for direction the report may be passed in the late in the future as well. Because the participative
style may be successful it has a point value of two. The use of the autocratic supervisory style over
directs the employee. It will most likely get the report in on time, but could have other side effects like
lower morale. The autocratic style scores one point. The use of the laissez-faire style does not give the
employee the direction needed. Using it will most likely result in late reports. It has a point value of 0.
We should realize the importance of the matching the appropriate supervisory style to the capability level
of the employee. In the late expense report situation the appropriate supervisory style would change if the
employee's capability level were different.
Optional paragraph:

If the employee is consistently late with expense reports because of an unwillingness to do them on
time, she would have a low capability level (C-1); the autocratic supervisory style would be
appropriate.

If the employee was at a high level of capability (C-3), needing very little or no direction, the
participative style would be appropriate. It would not necessary to be pined down for a specific time
or reminded not to let it happen again next month.

If the employee had an outstanding level of capability, needing no direction or support, the laissezfaire style would be appropriate.
The Situational Supervision Skill Building Exercise is designed to help you improve your ability to
determine the capability level of employees and to select the appropriate supervisory style to result in
optimum outcomes in given situations.
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Chapter 7: Leading and Trust
SKILL BUILDING EXERCISES, SB 7.1
Situational Supervision
Total time (10-75 minutes)
You may select any time length to spend on this exercise. Do as many situations as you have time for and
give the class the answers to the remaining situations.
8:00
8:05
8:11
8:46
8:48
8:50
Recommended approximate times for a 50-minute period.
Procedure 1*
3 minutes
6 "
Procedure 2a
35 "
Procedure 2bc**
2 "
Integration
2 "
Application
*You may skip procedure 1 if you go over the text material before beginning the exercise, or if you showed the
video and gave the instructional answers.
**Times will vary for this procedure. If students are slow and need more time, you may want to give it to them and
have the integration and application done after class. It may be necessary to give them the answers to situations
not covered. If students are faster, slow down the explanations of answers and stress the consequences of
selecting the wrong style. You may also add a sharing section to extend the time.
Note: Try not to waste time arguing with students if they disagree with recommended answers. There is
room for interpretation. If the student can match capability level and supervisory style on the job, they
will tend to be successful.
The test bank section of this instructor's manual has questions similar to the 12 situations. However, the
questions only require the student to select the best alternative action. Capability level and alternative
style analysis is not asked for. But, you can require this information. If you plan to use them, you may
want to inform students when you go over this exercise. I give full credit for the recommended answer,
and half credit for the second best answer.
Another alternative to testing on situational supervision understanding is to give the students a situation
only. Let the students state what the capability level is, what type of behavior is appropriate
(directive/supportive), and the action they would take (what would they do and say). I give full credit if
the student selects the second and possibly third best style IF they stay consistent with their answer.
Many time students select a capability level, yet state the wrong type of behavior for that style. In this
case, they lose points.
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Chapter 7: Leading and Trust
ANSWERS/SCORING FOR SITUATIONS 1-12
The higher the points, the more effective the style would be in that situation.
Capability
Situation
1
Level
C-2
2
C-1
3
C-4
4
C-1
5
C-3
6
C-4
7
C-3
8
C-2
9
C-4
10
C-3
11
C-1
12
C-2
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Supervisory
Styles
A. S-L
B. S-C
C. S-A
D. S-P
A. S-C
B. S-A
C. S-L
D. S-P
A. S-L
B. S-C
C. S-P
D. S-A
A. S-C
B. S-L
C. S-A
D. S-P
A. S-A
B. S-P
C. S-L
D. S-C
A. S-L
B. S-P
C. S-C
D. S-A
A. S-C
B. S-L
C. S-P
D. S-A
A. S-P
B. S-A
C. S-L
D. S-C
A. S-P
B. S-C
C. S-L
D. S-A
A. S-A
B. S-L
C. S-C
D. S-P
A. S-A
B. S-P
C. S-C
D. S-L
A. S-L
B. S-A
C. S-C
D. S-P
Points
0
3
2
1
2
3
0
1
3
1
2
0
2
0
3
1
0
3
2
1
3
2
1
0
2
1
3
0
2
1
0
3
2
1
3
0
0
1
2
3
3
1
2
0
0
2
3
1
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Chapter 7: Leading and Trust
SKILLS ASSESSMENT OF SB 7-1
There are several questions related to the Situational Supervision model and similar to the 12 situations
in SB 7-1 with the application questions. However, there are also skills questions.
Situations similar to those in this exercise are in the test bank and in this skill-building section. When I
tell students to do Situation 3 (procedure Step 2-1), I tell them how they will be tested on the exam, and I
go over the answer in the four-part format below. Students are not allowed to look at the model during
the test; they need to know the model.
A situation is given (similar to 12 in preparation for the exercise). Then, students are asked to provide the
correct:

Capability level (number 1-4)

Management style (autocratic, consultative, participative, laissez-faire)

Behavior to use (high directive/low supportive, high directive/high supportive, low directive/high
supportive, low directive/low supportive)

Action (Students write the action they would take in the situation using the management style
behavior they selected. Students should write a statement similar to the a-b-c-d alternative given in
the 12 situations in the exercise.)
I tell students that if they get the second best alternative, they will be given full credit if they stay
consistent. For example, students may put “4” on the Capability level line, participative on the
Management style line, and “High directive/High supportive” on the Behavior to use line, which
represent three different styles. I take off partial credit for each part that is wrong. The next best answer
is 3, Participative, Low directive/High supportive. Conduct a meeting to get the group members' ideas.
Select new hours together, with your approval.
Grading. I generally make the skill-builder a 10-point question on the exam. I give 2 points for the first
three lines, four points for the Action taken. I give full credit for the first and second best answers if
students stay consistent. I take off 3 or 4 points if they give the wrong answers and stay consistent. If they
are not consistent, I take off 5 or 6 points.
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Instructor’s Manual
Chapter 7: Leading and Trust
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
1. You've been promoted from being an employee in one department to be the supervisor in
another department. The supervisor you are replacing did not require the group to do much
work. Production is low, and has declined in recent months. That is why you got the job. As a
situational manager identify the following:
A. Capability level
B. Management style
C. Behavior
D. Action
Answer:
A. C-1
B. Autocratic
C. High directive/low support
D. Closely oversee employee's work. Be sure that production increases to standard levels.
Second best answer:
A. C-2
B. Consultative
C. High directive/high supportive
D. Closely oversee employee's work as you encourage them to improve performance, and get to know
them. Be sure standards are met.
2. As a supervisor you want to improve performance in your department. You have asked your
employees to think of ways to improve the department. However, you don't expect many good
ideas because in the past the group has not been very interested or enthusiastic in participating in
decision-making. You have some good ideas. As a situational manager identify the following:
A. Capability level
B. Management style
C. Behavior
D. Action
Answer:
A. C-2
B. Consultative
C. High directive/high support
D. Encouragingly ask the members for their ideas. After they are finished present your ideas and sell
them on the benefits of implementing them.
Second best answer:
A. C-3
B. Participative
C. Low directive/high supportive
D. Encouragingly ask the members for their ideas. Do not directly give your own ideas,. Instead, give
some of your information and let them come to conclusions so that they feel as though the ideas are theirs
rather than yours.
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Chapter 7: Leading and Trust
3. As a supervisor, you spend little time telling employees what to do and most of the time
encouraging them to do a good job. However, at the present time your employees have fallen
behind schedule on an important project due soon. As a situational manager identify the
following:
A. Capability level
B. Management style
C. Behavior
D. Action
Answer:
A. C-2
B. Consultative
C. High directive/high support
D. Oversee employee's to be sure that the deadline is meet as you continue to encourage them.
Second best answer:
A. C-3
B. Participative
C. Low directive/high supportive
D. Continue to encourage employees' and use more directives than usually to meet the deadline.
4. You are discussing the delegation of a new task to one of your best employees, Pete. However,
Pete is hesitant to take on the new assignment. You are confident he can do it on his own. As a
situational manager identify the following:
A. Capability level
B. Management style
C. Behavior
D. Action
Answer:
A. C-3
B. Participative
C. Low directive/high supportive
D. Encouraging ask Pete what is the best way to do the task? Build up his confidence as you discuss the
delegation.
Second best answer:
A. C-2
B. Consultative
C. High directive/high supportive
D. Tell Pete how to do the delegation, as you encourage him to do it.
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Instructor’s Manual
Chapter 7: Leading and Trust
5. You have an employee, Jean, who does an excellent job on her own. You believe the job is
boring to Jean because it is too easy for her. So, you have decided to delegate on of three
assignments to her. You're not sure which one she will like best. As a situational manager identify
the following:
A. Capability level
B. Management style
C. Behavior
D. Action
Answer:
A. C-4
B. Laissez-faire
C. Low directive/low supportive
D. Explain the three tasks and let Jean select the one she wants to do.
Second best answer
A. C-3
B. Participative
C. Low directive/high supportive
D. Tell Jean what the three tasks are and together supportively decide which task she should do.
Note: Feel free to make up your own situations, and even your own test format.
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Chapter 7: Leading and Trust
SKILL BUILDING EXERCISE, SB-7.2
A Leadership Styles Role Play
Total time (30-50 minutes)
Times will vary with class size and the number of role-plays done. Select a time and do as many roleplays as time permits. It usually takes the author's classes about 40 minutes to complete. This exercise is
somewhat similar to the video in that it requires the class to select which style the manager is using in the
situation.
This exercise illustrates the effects of using the appropriate vs. inappropriate leadership style. Students
enjoy it. You may need to pick some volunteers though. Students who allow eye contact with you will
usually play a role.
PROCEDURE 1
Select Option A (Continuum Leadership Styles and use Figure 7-4 for the definitions of the seven styles)
or Option B (Situational Supervision Styles, POSSIBLE LEADERSHIP STYLES.)
PROCEDURE 2
Set up four chairs at an angle allowing the class to see the supervisor and employees. Try to have each of
the four major styles role-played. If you have more than four groups use the a. and b. alternatives within
the style. I ask each group their selected style; if no one has it, I allow the group to use it. If its been taken
I give them one not already taken.
PROCEDURE 4
List the seven leadership options on the board. Ask how many believed each was portrayed by the leader.
Put the votes on the board. When there is disagreement discuss it. Supervisors sometimes do a confusing
job.
PROCEDURE 5
Use the same board listings of optional leadership styles. Write the votes on the board. The author, and
large majority of his students, select using the Consultative style option.
SKILLS ASSESSMENT OF SB 7-2
There are no test questions because the focus of the book is on situational supervision. However, if you
want to test on the Leadership Behavior Styles, you may do so using the same five situations from SB 71. Just change the format to match your expectations and make them clear to the class prior to the test.
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Instructor’s Manual
Chapter 7: Leading and Trust
SKILL BUILDING EXERCISES, SB 7-3
Self-Disclosure and Trust (Johari Window)
Total time (10-30 minutes)
You may select any time length to spend on this exercise. To shorten time, don’t do procedure 2,
Recommended approximate time for a 30-minute period
8:00
8:10
8:20
8:23
8:25
Recommended approximate times for a 30-minute period.
Procedure 1
10 minutes
10 "
(or any other 20 minute split between 1 and 2)
Procedure 2
03 "
Conclusions
02 "
Application
05 "
Sharing
Lussier: Human Relations, 6/e
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