Download 1.2 Memory

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Holonomic brain theory wikipedia, lookup

Mind-wandering wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
The Memory Manual
Authors
Jeffrey M. Galas
Jaron J. Rubenstein
Nanci Kohlhagen
Douglas W. Spear
David M. Light
Angela T. Sullivan
Michele Rovegno
Megan Toy
Jana L. Zeibaq
Table of Contents
1 Introduction ...................................................................................................................................... 1
1.1 Purpose.................................................................................................................................... 1
1.2 Memory ................................................................................................................................... 1
1.2.1 What is it? ....................................................................................................................... 1
1.2.2 Types of Memory............................................................................................................ 1
Long Term vs. Short Term...................................................................................................... 1
Iconic vs. Echoic ..................................................................................................................... 2
Implicit vs. Explicit ................................................................................................................. 2
Declarative vs. Procedural ...................................................................................................... 2
Episodic vs. Semantic ............................................................................................................. 2
2
Presentation ................................................................................................................................. 3
2.1 Presentation ............................................................................................................................. 3
2.2 Attention ................................................................................................................................. 3
2.2.1 Sleep ................................................................................................................................ 3
2.3 Serial Position Effect .............................................................................................................. 4
2.3.1 Primacy Effect ................................................................................................................ 4
2.3.2 Recency Effect ................................................................................................................ 4
2.4 Forgetting Curve ..................................................................................................................... 4
2.5 Environmental Conditions ...................................................................................................... 5
2.6 Flashbulb Memories................................................................................................................ 5
2.7 Visual and Auditory Modalities .............................................................................................. 6
3
Learning ...................................................................................................................................... 7
3.1 Capacity .................................................................................................................................. 7
3.2 Rehearsal ................................................................................................................................. 7
3.3 Mnemonic devices .................................................................................................................. 7
3.3.1 Chaining .......................................................................................................................... 8
3.3.2 Locations (Method of Loci) ............................................................................................ 8
3.3.3 Pegwords ......................................................................................................................... 8
3.3.4 Acronyms ........................................................................................................................ 9
3.3.5 Number Chunking ........................................................................................................... 9
3.4 State Dependent Learning ....................................................................................................... 9
4
Remembering ............................................................................................................................ 10
4.1 Interference ........................................................................................................................... 10
4.2 Retrieval Cues ....................................................................................................................... 10
4.3 Context Effects...................................................................................................................... 11
4.4 False Memories ..................................................................................................................... 11
4.5 Misinformation Effect ........................................................................................................... 11
5
Conclusion ................................................................................................................................ 12
6
References ................................................................................................................................. 13
7
Index ......................................................................................................................................... 14
1 Introduction
1.1 Purpose
The goal of this manual is to provide the user with a working guide to the human memory. Things
such as types of memory, and the processes of acquisition, learning, and remembering information
will be discussed. Along with what memory is and a widely accepted model of how it works.
1.2
Memory
1.2.1 What is it?
Through out the years memory has had many different definitions. However for the purposes of the
manual we will define memory as: a process where information is retained, our experiences “filed”
and then retrieved when we recall them. Memory is linked with learning, which is the obtainment
of new information, and memory is the holding of this learned information. There are many
subdivisions of memory, which will be discussed and defined presently. Refer to Figure 1 for the
Modal Model of Memory which is based on the Atkinson & Shiffrin model (Payne & Wenger,
1998).
Figure 1. The Modal Model of Memory (adapted from Payne & Wenger, 1998, p. 188)
Maintenance
rehearsal
External
Information
Sensory
stores
Loss from
sensory stores
Short-term
store
Loss from
short-term store
Long-term
store
Decay and
interference
1.2.2 Types of Memory
1.2.2.1 Long Term vs. Short Term
Long Term Memory may be defined as, “the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the
memory system,” (Myers, pg. 282, 1992).
Example: It is because of long term memory that you are able to remember things such as who
some of your elementary school teachers were or what you were doing a month ago.
Short Term Memory is “working memory that holds a few items [usually between 5-7 pieces of
information] briefly before the information is stored or forgotten,” (Myers, pg. 282, 1992).
Example: Short term memory is useful when you are told a phone number and you then can dial
immediately and forget it or store it to recall soon after.
Page 1
1.2.2.2 Iconic vs. Echoic
An Iconic Memory is a momentary memory of a visual object.
Example: After seeing a photograph or picture and then removing it a memory of it will last for no
more than a second or so.
An Echoic Memory is a momentary recalling of an audio stimulus.
Example: After hearing your favorite song on the radio you can recall it’s sounds or words within
the next 3 or 4 seconds.
1.2.2.3 Implicit vs. Explicit
Implicit Memory is information, which is retained without conscious recollection.
Example: This would be like knowing how to tie your shoe or playing an instrument once you
reach an expert level.
Explicit Memory is having memories of facts and experiences that you can declare.
Example: You know and can state what your name is, where you live, where you work or where
you went to school and know that these are true facts.
1.2.2.4 Declarative vs. Procedural
Declarative Memory is “information that summarizes basic facts about the world, it can be
reported verbally, and chunks are hypothesized to be the basis of this information, ” (Payne &
Wenger, 1998, p. G-4).
Example: An example of declarative memory is knowing without looking that the sky is blue and
grass is green and you can state it.
Procedural Memory is information that allows a person to perform a task, but usually they will
have difficulty expressing it verbally.
Example: This can be likened to an experienced driver trying to teach a person who has never
before seen a car or driven on. It is often difficult for the expert to explain step by step what the
novice must do.
1.2.2.5 Episodic vs. Semantic
Episodic Memory is “information that is specific to some particular event” (Payne & Wenger,
1998, p. G-5).
Example: Many people liken this type of information to knowing where they were when the
NASA Space Shuttle Challenger blew up or the first time they were kissed.
Semantic Memory is “information that has general meaning and is not specific to any particular
event” (Payne & Wenger, 1998, p. G-10).
Example: You are able to describe the characteristics of a dog without describing a specific dog.
Page 2
2 Presentation
2.1 Presentation
Human memory is an extremely diverse and complex storage system. Our brain and memory
framework is often compared to that of computers, however, a computer has yet to be built that is
as adaptable and intricate as our minds. Our memories are stored through a vast array of
connections and associations between information that we incorporate each minute of the day. This
can lead to problems when trying to comprehend how memory works and how its use can be
optimized.
Although the exact configuration of our memory system is still unknown, models like Quillian’s
network model and the feature list model have been proposed to explain how memories are
organized and retrieved.
Our goal in this section is to give you some pointers on how to present memory in order to get the
most productive and beneficial results. But first, we will give you a basic description on how
information is stored into memories.
There are three separate parts of any memory task. The first is acquisition, the process of putting
information into memory. This stage is also known as encoding because our brains are “coding”
the information we just received into the “language of memory”. The second part of the task is
retention, the process of retaining the information once it has been stored in memory. The third
and final part to a memory task is retrieval, the operation necessary to get information out of
memory (Payne & Wenger, 1998, p. 178). If you can recall a piece of information from memory,
than all three components have functioned properly.
2.2 Attention
One of the first things to remember about memory when presenting information to any audience is
that humans do not have an infinite attention span. In fact it has been estimated that we start to
decline after the first ten minutes of a presentation. To maximize your audiences memory storage, it
would be best to give them the most important facts during the first ten minutes before they begin
to drift. When presenting information to yourself, for example reading a book, taking a break every
45 minutes will prevent your mind from fatiguing too quickly and help you to stay focused and
attentive to the material before you. These hints are estimations and it should be understood that
each individual is different, and with time, will learn what the limits of their personal attention
span.
2.2.1 Sleep
Don’t pull all-nighters! Recent studies have shown that sleep deprivation has a detrimental effect
on learning, short-term memory, and memory consolidation(the sorting of memories) (Li et al.,
1991). Other research in this area shows an even greater effect when working with areas of
problem- solving, such as advanced math calculations (Smith, et al, 1993). Studies do show that
missing certain hours in the sleep cycle, especially REM sleep, cause the most problems (Li et al.,
1991). The common understanding of sleep cycles states that the average amount of sleep it is best
to obtain a night is 8 hours. So, for all you college students planning on studying for a test straight
through the night, you’re better off starting earlier and getting a good night’s sleep.
Page 3
2.3 Serial Position Effect
The serial position effect is defined by Payne and Wenger as “the effect describing differences in
subjects’ ability to remember items in lists as a function of the positions of the items in the lists”
(1998, p. G-11). Research has repeatedly shown that the first and the last items in a list are the
most likely to be remembered. So, for example, if you are involved in marketing, and need to
advertise your product in a commercial, the most important information you wish to convey about
your product should be stated at the beginning and at the end of the advertisement. This setup will
have the most impact on a potential buyer (Pieters & Bijmolt, 1997). These effects of the first and
last things being remembered the most are referred to as the primacy and the recency effect (Payne
& Wenger, 1998).
2.3.1 Primacy Effect
The primacy effect is defined as “the effect by which, in a recall or recognition test, performance
is better for early items than for middle items” (Payne & Wenger, 1998, p. G-9). This information
is more likely to make it into the long- term memory storage, so stands a better chance of being
recalled. An example of this is that when a block of commercials is presented, the first commercial
is the most likely to be remembered (Pieters & Bijmolt, 1997).
2.3.2 Recency Effect
The recency effect is defined as “the effect by which, in a recall or recognition test, recall is better
for late items than middle items” (Payne & Wenger, 1998). If a list of items is quickly given to
someone with almost no space in between, such as names or numbers to be remembered, the last
items are the ones that will most likely be recalled. So when presenting someone with information,
remember to either give people time enough in between different pieces of information, or present
the most important messages last.
2.4 Forgetting Curve
The idea of forgetting is commonly defined as the amount of information that is lost after it is
presented. Hermann von Ebbinghaus did research on forgetting which showed that most
information is forgotten shortly after it is acquired (see Figure 2). So, when learning a new skill or
subject, it is important to review and relearn it shortly after the material is originally presented.
Page 4
Figure 2. The Ebbinghaus Forgetting Curve (adapted from Payne & Wenger, 1998, p. 212)
100
90
Savings score
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
20 min
1 hour
9 hours 24 hours
2 days
6 days
9 days
Retention Interval
2.5 Environmental Conditions
Successful retrieval of a previously learned task depends on many factors. One such factor is the
way in which the retrieval cues are related to the properties of the information in memory as they
are determined at encoding. The best conditions at retrieval are those that are most similar to the
conditions at encoding (Payne & Wenger, 1998). So for example, if you wanted to learn how to
drive to pass your road test, the best way would be to actually get in a car and drive, rather than
read a manual or observe someone else driving.
2.6 Flashbulb Memories
Memories vary in their intensity and clarity depending upon the situation in which the memory is
formed. Flashbulb memories are memories for the circumstances in which we first learned of a
surprising and consequential (or emotionally arousing) event (Brown & Kulik, 1977). An example
is the fact that many people can easily recall where they were and what they were doing when they
first heard that J.F.K. was shot. What makes flashbulb memories unique is the undue confidence
with which these memories are held (Weaver, 1993). The principle determinants are situations in
which there is a high level of surprise, high level of consequentiality, and perhaps emotional
arousal (Brown & Kulik, 1977).
Page 5
2.7 Visual and Auditory Modalities
People often wonder what the best way is to present material. If you only have the option of using
one modality, auditory presentation has a definite advantage over visual presentation. Although, if
it is possible to use both modes for presentation, studies have shown that dual-mode (visual &
auditory) presentation can result in superior learning to equivalent single-modality formats
(Chandler et al., 1997).
Page 6
3 Learning
3.1 Capacity
Generally speaking capacity is the amount of information that can be stored or worked with in a
specific amount of time. Memory capacity is dependent on two factors, the rate at which the
information is presented and the amount of time it takes that information to fade (decay) to an
unusable amount.
In 1956 Miller suggested a limit to the amount of information that could be held in short term
memory. Miller observed an average limit of 7±2 (seven, plus or minus 2) items that could be
remembered over a large variety of tasks. Ebbinghaus also dealt with this issue in his work on the
forgetting curve. He found subjects attempting to remember nonsense words had perfect recall on
average from five to nine words. After that he marked a sharp decline in accuracy.
3.2 Rehearsal
One seemingly common misperception is that increasing rehearsal time alone will improve
retention. Research has shown that time itself is not so much a factor as how you utilize that time.
This is the key idea: instead of just holding an item in memory by rehearsing it, spend that time
actively making associations with other items. An important part of this process is paying attention
to meaningful aspects of the “target” item. Relate the item-to-be-remembered to other items or
ideas in a meaningful way. When you are called upon to retrieve that item, by yourself or another,
because you made those associations, your chances of recalling that item are improved. Here are a
few suggestions:
1. If what you are trying to learn is an idea, try to integrate that idea into background
knowledge you have on the subject.
2. Associating the target item with items that you are familiar with [italics] will improve
retention.
3. If you need to memorize a bunch of different facts, or something along this line,
organizing the facts into a meaningful story or scenario will improve retention.
Rehearsing, or repeating the memory items to be recalled, has a large effect on how well a person
learns information. If a person does not rehearse the items of interest, that information will be lost
from short-term memory very quickly (Brown, 1958; Peterson & Peterson, 1959). The more one
rehearses information, the more likely it is that the learner will recall it from short-term memory
(Rundus, 1971), and it is also more likely that it will be transferred to long-term memory.
However, as mentioned above, rehearsing information for a long period of time may not have as
much of an effect as in how the information is rehearsed.
3.3 Mnemonic devices
In general, a mnemonic device is an organization of knowledge using preexisting knowledge to
make the items to be remembered more meaningful and more easily recalled. There are many
different types of mnemonic devices, but some of the major ones are chaining, locations (method of
loci), pegword, acronyms, and number chunking. These are all useful techniques to help remember
information; the technique that one chooses should be based upon the information that will me
memorized.
Page 7
3.3.1 Chaining
The chaining technique involves taking a list of items and hooking those items together in a
sequence of events. In this way, each item becomes a cue for the next item (Brown, 1987). It is
very much like making a story out of the items in the list. For example, take this list of words:
window, toad, pie, chair, cloud, shampoo, clock. You may form a chain of events like this: a fly is
buzzing around a pie sitting on a chair underneath a window. A hungry toad jumps up and eats the
fly. The toad knocks the pie off the chair, causing steam to rise into the clouds. The steam
becomes part of a cloud that looks like a shampoo bottle. Now you imagine that shampoo bottle is
accidentally tipped over on a dresser, and spills onto a clock. It is important to make the link stand
out; if the image between two items are distinct, the items should flow freely from memory
(Brown, 1987).
3.3.2 Locations (Method of Loci)
The location technique is when you to take locations with which you are familiar, and associate
items in different rooms of that place. These places would most likely be home or workplace.
Using home as the familiar setting, and taking the same list from the previous section (window,
toad, pie, chair, cloud, shampoo, and clock), this is how a list might be remembered by location:
Bedroom - window: imagine the bright of light coming through the window in the morning.
Playroom - toad: an aquatic tank with a pet toad.
Kitchen - pie: a scrumptious pie is sitting on the kitchen table.
Living Room - chair: the family’s favorite beat up chair is in the living room
Garage - cloud: unfortunately, your “handy” brother isn’t so handy; he accidentally blew up the
motor on your lawnmower, and there is a huge cloud of smoke there.
Closet - shampoo: The oozing goo underneath your closet is from a favorite bottle of shampoo.
Clock - den: the loud noise that rings every half hour is from the clock in the den.
The home is the most common way of forming location memories, but an office or the human body
can be used, too (Brown, 1987).
3.3.3 Pegwords
There are two types of pegword techniques: auditory and visual. The pegword system is based on
a set of ten number-word pairings. The auditory pegword system is the most popular, so it is
described here. The ten pairs of number-words are: one-bun, two-shoe, three-tree, four-door, fivehive, six-sticks, seven-heaven, eight-gate, nine-wine, ten-hen. To remember a set of items, imagine
each item interacting with a word in the pegword list. For example, imagine needing to stop by a
convenience store for milk, eggs, bread, butter, and orange juice. Associations could be formed
like this:
One-bun-milk: a bun on a table has been doused with milk when the milk carton was spilled all
over the table.
Two-shoe-eggs: eggs are sticking out of the top of a shoe, like the eggs are “wearing” the shoe.
Three-tree-bread: a bread tree has hundreds of loafs of bread hanging off it. Four-door-butter: A
large stick of butter has been stuck to a door, and is slowly dripping down it.
Page 8
Five-hive-orange juice: A mischievous child decides to pour orange juice on a beehive that is on
the ground.
The pegword technique takes more time and energy to use than any other mnemonic technique, but
can be very useful once the number-word association list has been memorized.
3.3.4 Acronyms
Although not technically a mnemonic device, acronyms are very helpful in learning a set of items.
Acronyms are when a word is created from the first letter of every word in a list. A common
acronym used for the colors of a rainbow is ROY G BIV (Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue,
Indigo, and Violet). By presenting the first letter of an item in a list, one is much more likely to
remember the item of interest by jogging their memory (Brown, 1987).
3.3.5 Number Chunking
Chunking is taking memory items and separate them into meaningful groups. If a learner does
this, the information is much more likely to be recalled than if the learner had just rehearsed each
item individually (Furukawa, Cohen, Sumpter, Kay, 1982; Egan, Schwartz, 1979; Bower, 1969).
For example, here is a string of numbers: 1 9 9 8 1 7 7 6 1 4 9 2 2 0 0 1. If a person were to
rehearse each of these numbers individually, many of the numbers probably would not be recalled
(see Section 3.1, capacity). However, if one chunks the numbers into meaningful groups (in this
example, it would be years), one would recall the numbers as such: 1998, 1776, 1492, and 2001.
By grouping a set of items into one meaningful group, the numbers to be recalled are far more
likely to be remembered by the learner. Chunking greatly aids in learning and recall of
information, and is an excellent way of memorizing passages and lists of numbers.
3.4 State Dependent Learning
State dependent learning is related to retrieval cues in that it has to do with the effect of physical
states on the recall process. In state dependent learning, however, the focus is on the internal self
and physical states applying to the individual such as the presence of drugs in the system or periods
of high stress. Studies involving animals as well as people have shown that for optimal retrieval of
information, it is best to retrieve information in the same state in which it was learned.
If a student were to study for an exam under the influence of alcohol, for example, the student
would remember more information come exam time if he/she went to the exam under the same
influence of alcohol. Cross effects between drugs have been observed as well. If that same student
for example had studied while taking a barbiturate, going to the exam under the influence of
alcohol would still be better for recall than going sober.
Page 9
4 Remembering
4.1 Interference
The term interference is a word that most of us hear everyday. Usually it is meant to be anything
that can hinder or interrupt something from taking place. In terms of memory we refer to it as an
impairment as a result of information being learned before or after the information that is needed to
be memorized. This is a main concern, not only for psychologists but it affects our everyday
activities. It is always good to know what can cause such interference in memory so as to try an
avoid the decay in memory somehow.
There are two main types of interference: Proactive and Retroactive. Proactive interference refers
to the competition of earlier learned information with the information being learned presently. In
other words, anything that I learned yesterday will hinder me in remembering anything that I
learned today. Retroactive interference refers to the competition of new information being
learned with the information learned before. In other words, if I learned something now, anything
that I learned yesterday will be affected. These concepts may be difficult to differentiate. Just
remember, “Retro”- means before and “Pro”- means after.
There are different subsections under the topic of interference. One idea that researchers have been
studying is the recall effect that occurs when people have to memorize a lot of items. This is
especially pertinent to students who decide to leave everything to the last minute to do a quick
“Cram”. Research has shown that the more items that you have to recall the less likely you are able
to recall any additional items. This is referred to as output interference.
Item commonality refers to the interference that can occur when similar items are presented to be
memorized. “A widely held belief about recall is that distinctive cue is more effective than a
common cue” (Ceraso et al., 1982, p. 289). This means that if you have an item/cue that is
presented with another that is very similar it is difficult to learn and memorize them. If the items
were very distinctive then recall will be faster and better.
There are some distinct limits to the Interference Theory. It is believed by many that interference of
items depends upon the nature of the item itself. For instance, if something is familiar to you then it
will be easier to recall and interference will not affect it as much, “When meaningful passages are
used rather than nonsense syllable and list of words, no interference effects are found,”
(Haberlandt, 1997).
Another important idea is that interference in the lab setting is different to interference in the real
world. We cannot correctly duplicate it.
Interference itself, however, is an important idea to become aware of in your everyday activities. If
one becomes aware of their weaknesses, then one can try to compensate by doing something to
either prevent it or help it.
4.2 Retrieval Cues
A retrieval cue is an event, emotion or context which aides in the recall of memories. For
example, walking down your first grade hallway may bring back the names of your old classmates.
Emotionally, sad memories are more easily remembered if you are feeling sad. The most powerful
of all retrieval cues is context. The context, or environment, in which information is learned is the
best context for optimal retrieval of that information to occur. One study, for example, took two
groups of scuba divers and had them memorize word lists in different contexts. One group
Page 10
memorized on land, the other under water. When tested both groups performed equally well.
When the groups switched contexts (land people went under water to recall) recall dropped 40%.
4.3 Context Effects
There are two main types of context effects, context alpha and context beta. Context alpha is
described in section 4.2. It refers to the surroundings or environment an event occurs in. Context
beta is used to give meaning to a stimulus, a word for example, in the context it is being used. An
example of this is the use of the word coat. The word has a couple of meanings and needs to be
read in a sentence to determine which meaning is implied. The use of “coat” in “Sue grabbed her
coat and ran outside” implies a different meaning than “After I put the final coat of paint on the
table will be finished”.
4.4 False Memories
We rely on our memories to provide accurate, detailed accounts of past events. Sometimes, our
memory fails us and we cannot recall certain elements of these events. While this is unfortunate, it
is not nearly as unfortunate as when we can recall events with high certainty which did not occur.
This memory phenomenon is known as false memory, and occurs when a memory is recalled for
an event which never actually occurred (Payne & Wenger, 1998).
False memories are often produced in patients during therapy sessions. This occurs as a result of
poorly trained therapists using guided imagery and other methods to create memories which did not
occur (Loftus, 1995). People with false memories are convinced that these memories did in fact
occur, regardless of the feasibility of their claims. For example, one woman recalled memories of
participating in a cannibalistic satanic cult, being sexually abused, and abusing her sons. These
memories were the result of two and a half years of inpatient care at a mental hospital. Over time it
was found that these memories were inaccurate and were induced by poor clinical procedures.
4.5 Misinformation Effect
The misinformation effect occurs when a certain type of misleading information presented after
the original event biases or disrupts memory (Payne & Wenger, 1998). The primary concern of the
misinformation effect is that of the memory becoming altered by other experiences. The
misinformation effect may cause a false memory.
Page 11
5 Conclusion
Although we touched on the main topics of memory in this manual, it is not in any way a
comprehensive review of all memory issues. Research is being performed everyday to further
enhance what is already known about memory. For more information on any of the topics discussed
in this manual, check the reference section. Please direct any questions or comments about this
manual to jaron@psytronics.com via Internet e-mail.
Page 12
6 References
Bower, G. H. (1969). Chunks as interference units in free recall. Journal of Verbal Learning &
Verbal Behavior, 8, 610-613.
Brown, A. (1987). Maximizing Memory Power: Using Recall in Business. New York: John
Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Brown, R., & Kulik, J. (1977). Flashbulb memories. Cognition, 5, 73-99.
Egan, D. E., & Schwartz, Barry J. (1979). Chunking in recall of symbolic drawings. Memory
& Cognition, 7, 149-158.
Ceraso, J., Timmerman, R., & Velk, R. (1982). Cue Versus Item Commonality
in Interference. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 4, 289-296.
Chandler, P., Sweller, J., & Tindall-Ford, S. (1997). When two sensory modes are better than
one. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 3, 257-287.
Furukawa, J. M., Cohen, N. J., & Sumpter, K. (1982). Improving student achievement.
Research in Higher Education, 16, 245-263.
Haberlandt, K. (1993). Cognitive Psychology. Boston, MA: Paramount Publishing.
_____. (1997) Cognitive Psychology (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Viacom Company.
Hulme, C. R., Schweickert, S., Brown, R., Gordon D. A., et al. (1997). Word frequency effects
on short-term memory tasks: Evidence for a redintegration process in immediate serial recall.
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 23, 1217-1232.
Li, D., Wu, Z., Shao, D., & Liu, S. (1991). The relationship of sleep to learning and memory.
International Journal of Mental Health, 20, 41-47.
Liu, C. H., & Kennedy, J. M. (1994). Symbolic forms can be mnemonics for recall.
Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 1, 494-498.
Loftus, E. F. (1995) Remembering Dangerously. Skeptical Inquirer, March, 1995.
Mikkonen, V. (1989) Acquisition and forgetting in free-recall learning. Scandinavian Journal
of Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 15, 241-245.
Myers, D. G., (1992). Psychology (3rd ed.). New York: Worth Publishers, Inc.
Payne, D. G., & Wenger, M. J. (1998) Cognitive Psychology. New York: Houghton Mifflin
Company.
Pieters, R., & Bijmolt, T. (1997). Consumer memory for television advertising: A field study
of duration, serial position, and competition effects. Journal of Consumer Research, 4, 362-372.
Smith, C., & MacNeill, C. (1993). A paradoxical sleep-dependent window for memory 53-56h
after the end of avoidance training. Psychobiology, 21, 109-112.
Smith, S. (1984). Contextual enrichment and distribution of practice in the classroom.
Cognition and Instruction, 1, 341-358.
Smith, S. (1981). Spacing repitions and soving problems are not the same. Journal of Verbal
Learning and Verbal Behavior, 20, 110-119.
Weaver, C. A. (1993). Do you need a “flash” to form a flashbulb memory. Journal of
Experimental Psychology: none, 122, 39-46.
Page 13
7 Index
A
acronyms, 9
attention span, 3
C
capacity of memory, 7
chaining technique, 8
chunking, 9
context alpha, 11
context beta, 11
context effects, 11
alpha, 11
beta, 11
E
Ebbinghaus' forgetting curve, 4
F
false memory, 11
flashbulb memory, 5
forgetting, 4
curve, 4
I
interference, 10
output, 10
proactive, 10
retroactive, 10
item commonality, 10
L
learning, 7
location technique, 8
M
memorization
acronyms, 9
chaining technique, 8
chunking, 9
location technique, 8
mnemonic devices, 7
pegword technique, 8
rehearsal, 7
memory, 1
capacity, 7
declarative, 2
echoic, 2
episodic, 2
explicit, 2
false, 11
flashbulb memory, 5
human, 1
iconic, 2
implicit, 2
interference, 10
long-term, 1
modal model, 1
procedural, 2
semantic, 2
short-term, 1
misinformation effect, 11
mnemonic device, 7
N
number chunking, 9
O
output interference, 10
P
pegword technique, 8
pegwords, 8
primacy effect, 4
proactive interference, 10
R
recency effect, 4
rehearsal, 7
repetition, 7
retrieval cue, 10
retroactive interference, 10
S
serial position, 4
serial position effect
primacy effect, 4
recency effect, 4
sleep deprivation, 3
REM sleep, 3
state dependent learning, 9
stimulus modality, 6
Page 14