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Ch. 4 Sec 1 The plant kingdom
What is a plant?
a. Multicellular eukaryotes
b. Autotrophs
i. Use photosynthesis – using light to
make food
c. Plant cells
i. Call walls mostly made of cellulose
ii. Chloroplasts, which is where
photosynthesis takes place
iii. Vacuole – sack-like storage place.
When empty, plants wilt.
d. Multicellular
i. Organized into tissues – specialized
cells that perform a particular
function (like your skin or heart)
Origin of plants
a. Fossils go back 400 million years, to small
b. Plants and green algae have the same
form of chlorophyll, so that supports the
fossil evidence
Living on land requires many adaptations
a. Obtaining water
i. Have to bring water and nutrients
from soil to where growth takes place
b. Retaining water
i. Water tends to evaporate, but land
plants cannot afford that, so they
developed the cuticle, a waxy,
waterproof leaf covering
c. Transporting materials
i. Vascular tissue is tube-like structures
for moving food and water
d. Support
i. Needs to be self-supporting
ii. Must expose chlorophyll to sunlight
e. Sexual Reproduction
i. Fertilization is when the sperm cell
unites with an egg cell. Fertilized egg
is called a zygote. Usually takes place
in flowers
Complex life cycles
a. Two stages – sporophyte (produces
spores) and gametophyte (produces egg
and sperm cells)
Ch. 4 Sec 2 Photosynthesis and light
Nature of light
a. White light is made up of all the colors of
the rainbow, shown by a prism. Known as
the visible spectrum
b. Most objects absorb some light and
reflect other parts of the spectrum. A
blue shirt reflects blue light and absorbs
the rest of the spectrum
Plants and light
a. Mostly reflect green light and absorb the
b. Plant pigments
i. Chlorophyll absorbs mostly blue and
red light, reflecting green
ii. Accessory pigments are yellow,
orange, and red. Only visible when
chlorophyll dies.
c. Capturing energy
i. Light is a form of energy, and that
energy is what powers the process of
Chemistry of photosynthesis
a. Carbon dioxide and water are the raw
materials of photosynthesis
b. Photosynthesis involved a complex set of
chemical reactions
c. End result is production of sugar and
oxygen gas.
d. You need to know the chemical equation
on page 124.
e. Excess energy is stored in roots, stems,
and leaves.
Ch. 4 Sec 3 Mosses, liverworts, and hornworts
Characteristics of nonvascular plants
a. Low growing
b. Do not have vascular tissue – tube like
structures that transport water and other
i. Pass materials from on cell to the
c. Only have cell walls to support, so stay
d. Lack roots, so get water and minerals
directly from surroundings
a. Over 10,000 species
b. Structure of moss
i. Fuzzy green part is the gametophyte
ii. Rhizoids are root-like structures
iii. The sporophyte generation grows out
of the gametophyte. It is a slender
stalk with the spore capsule at the
c. Importance of mosses
i. Sphagnum moss grows in bogs, very
acidic water where things don’t decay
ii. Compressed layers of dead sphagnum
moss are called peat, which can be
used as a fuel for heating & cooking
iii. Mosses are often pioneer plants, like
III. Liverworts and hornworts
a. 8,000 types of liverworts, which grow like
a crust on moist soil or rocks
b. 100 kinds of hornworts, which have hornlike sporophyte structures. Often grow
among grasses.
Ch. 4 Sec 4 Ferns and their relatives
Characteristics of seedless vascular plants
a. Vascular tissue
i. Transport water up and food down
from the leaves
ii. Also strengthen the plants, like a
bunch of drinking straws together.
b. Spores for reproduction
i. Need to be in moist places because
need water for egg and sperm cells to
come together.
a. 1st appeared on land 400 million years ago
b. Over 12,000 species
c. Structure of ferns
i. Have true roots, stems, and leaves
ii. Stems generally are underground, so
all you see are the leaves, known as
1. Fiddleheads are the developing
leaves of a fern
d. Reproduction in ferns
i. What you are used to seeing is the
sporophyte stage, with spores forming
on the bottom of leaves. The
gametophytes are tiny plants, low to
the ground.
e. Importance of ferns
i. Decorative, as houseplants and as
basis for orchids
ii. As food, especially fiddleheads
iii. Help rice crops by providing home for
useful bacteria
III. Club mosses and horsetails
a. Very few species still alive today
b. Club mosses are not mosses – they have
vascular tissue.
c. Horsetails have jointed stems that are
abrasive (once used to clean dishes)