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Student Name: ________________________________________ Per: __________ Date: __ / __ / __ Score: ______
LEARNING GUIDE 10: PERIODICITY ART
EDITORS
Giovanna Sanchez, Yasmin Garcia, and Alfredo Garcia
STATE CONTENT STANDARDS
1c. Students know how to use the periodic table to identify alkali metals, alkaline earth metals and transition metals, trends
in ionization energy, electronegativity, and the relative sizes of ions and atoms. A few other groups are given family names. These include the alkali metals (Group 1), such as sodium and potassium, which are
soft and white and extremely reactive chemically. Alkaline earth metals (Group 2), such as magnesium and calcium, are found in
the second column of the periodic table. The transition metals (Groups 3 through 12) are represented by some of the most
common metals, such as iron, copper, gold, mercury, silver, and zinc. All these elements have electrons in their outer d orbitals.
Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom of an element to attract electrons toward itself in a chemical bond. The
values of electronegativity calculated for various elements range from one or less for the alkali metals to three and one-half for
oxygen to about four for fluorine. Ionization energy is the energy it takes to remove an electron from an atom. An element
often has multiple ionization energies, which correspond to the energy needed to remove first, second, third, and so forth
electrons from the atom. Generally in the periodic table, ionization energy and electronegativity increase from left to right
because of increasing numbers of pro-tons and decrease from top to bottom owing to an increasing distance between electrons
and the nucleus. Atomic and ionic sizes generally decrease from left to right and increase from top to bottom for the same
reasons. Exceptions to these general trends in properties occur because of filled and half-filled subshells of electrons.
MAJOR CONCEPTS
Lesson 36: Students understand the general trends in atomic properties in the periodic table.
VOCABULARY
Atomic radii:
____________________________________________________________
Ionization energy:
_______________________________________________________
Periodicity: ________________________________________________________________
Electronegativity: ___________________________________________________________
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Student Name: ________________________________________ Per: __________ Date: __ / __ / __ Score: ______
CHAPTER 11
Section 11.1
1. _______________________________________________________________
2. _______________________________________________________________
3. _______________________________________________________________
4. _______________________________________________________________
5. _______________________________________________________________
6. _______________________________________________________________
7. _______________________________________________________________
SUMMARIES
Using one paragraph per section, summarize the section you just read.
Section 11.1
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Student Name: ________________________________________ Per: __________ Date: __ / __ / __ Score: ______
READING GUIDE
CHAPTER 11
11.11 Title: _________________________________________
1. Fundamentally, chemistry is a science based on what?
2. The atomic theory is an attempt to help us do what?
3. ______________________ remain the same over the decades, but our
_____________________ (or _________________) change as new knowledge is uncovered.
4. What happens when a metal and a nonmetal react?
5. Why are atoms more likely to lose an electron as we go down a group?
6. On the periodic table, where are the most:
a. chemically active metals?
b. chemically active nonmetals?
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Student Name: ________________________________________ Per: __________ Date: __ / __ / __ Score: ______
7. Atoms get ______________ as we go down a group. Atoms get ______________ as we go from left to
right across a period.
8. As the principal energy level increases, what happens to the average distance of the electrons from the
nucleus?
9. The number of protons _______________ as we go left to right across a period. The resulting
_______________ in positive charge pulls the electrons ______________ to the nucleus.
10. Define ionization energy.
11. As we go down a group, ionization energy ____________________.
12. As we go left to right across a period, ionization energy generally __________________.
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Student Name: ________________________________________ Per: __________ Date: __ / __ / __ Score: ______
LECTURE NOTES
Lesson 36: 11.11 Atomic Properties and the Periodic Table
Periodic Trends (Periodicity)
By organizing the elements by atomic number, patterns of physical and chemical
properties are seen.
Atomic Radii (size)
A.
Atomic Radius
1.
together
B.
One half the distance between nuclei of identical atoms that are bonded
Trends
1. Atomic radius tends to decrease across a period due to increasing positive
nuclear charge
2. Atomic radii tend to increase down a group due to increasing number
energy levels (outer electrons are farther from the nucleus)
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Student Name: ________________________________________ Per: __________ Date: __ / __ / __ Score: ______
Trends in Ionization Energy
A.
Ion
1.
B.
Ionization
1.
C.
An atom or a group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge
Any process resulting in the formation of an ion
Ionization Energy
1. The energy required to remove one electron from a neutral atom of an
element, measured in kilojoules/mole (kJ/mol)
A
D.
+
energy 
A
+
e-
Trends
1.
Ionization energy of main-group elements tends to increase across each
period
a. Atoms are getting smaller; electrons are closer to the nucleus
2. Ionization energy of main-group elements tends to decrease as atomic
number increases in a group
a.
Atoms are getting larger; electrons are farther from the nucleus
b. Outer electrons become increasingly more shielded from the
nucleus by inner electrons
3.
Metals have characteristic low ionization energy
4.
Nonmetals have high ionization energy
5.
Noble gases have very high ionization energy
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Student Name: ________________________________________ Per: __________ Date: __ / __ / __ Score: ______
E.
Removing Additional Electrons
Na
+
496 kJ/mol
Na
+
4562 kJ/mol ◊
Na++
+
Na
◊
Na++
6912 kJ/mol ◊
+
e+
Na+++
e+
e-
1.
Ionization energy increases for each successive electron
2.
Each electron removed experiences a stronger effective nuclear charge
3. The greatest increase in ionization energy comes when trying to remove
an electron from a stable, noble gas configuration
Trends in Ionic Size
A.
Cations
1.
Positive ions
2.
Smaller than the corresponding atom
a.
b.
B.
Less shielding of electrons
Anions
1.
Negative ions
2.
Larger than the corresponding atoms
a.
b.
C.
Protons outnumber electrons
Electrons outnumber protons
Greater electron-electron repulsion
Trends
1.
Ion size tends to increase downward within a group
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Student Name: ________________________________________ Per: __________ Date: __ / __ / __ Score: ______
Trends in Electronegativity
A.
Electronegativity
1.
electrons
A measure of the ability of an atom in a chemical compound to attract
2. Elements that do not form compounds are not assigned
electronegativities
B.
Trends
1.
Nonmetals have characteristically high electronegativity
a.
2.
Highest in the upper right corner
Metals have characteristically low electronegativity
a.
Lowest in the lower left corner of the table
3.
Electronegativity tends to increase across a period
4.
Electronegativity tends to decrease down a group of main-group element
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Student Name: ________________________________________ Per: __________ Date: __ / __ / __ Score: ______
FOCUS QUESTIONS
1. What types of ions do the metals and the nonmetallic elements form?
2. Give some similarities that exist among the elements in Group 1.
3. Where are the most nonmetallic elements located on the periodic table? Why do
these elements pull electrons from metallic elements so effectively during a reaction?
QUESTIONS AND PROBLEMS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Give some similarities that exist among the elements of group 1.
Give some similarities that exist among the elements of group 7.
What chemical property distinguishes a metal from a nonmetal?
How can this property in question 3 be explained using ionization energy trends?
Identify the following elements
a. The most reactive nonmetal (not a noble gas)
b. The smallest lanthanide
c. The largest metalloid
d. The metal with the lowest ionization energy
e. The least reactive halogen
f. The least reactive member of the fifth period
g. The actinide with the highest nuclear charge
6. Suppose that element 120 has just been discovered. Identify four chemical or physical
properties expected of this element.
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Student Name: ________________________________________ Per: __________ Date: __ / __ / __ Score: ______
JOURNAL
What points in the material strike you as important?
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What new material have you learned?
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List several questions about what you learned?
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How does what you learned relate to other information that you have learned in this course?
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How did the class work stimulate your thinking?
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