Unit 3: Dynamic Earth 1. Students will identify the causes of earthquakes. o Earthquakes happen when there is movement along a fault. 2. Students will understand the difference between the intensity and the magnitude measurements of an earthquake. 3. Students will understand that P-waves travel faster than S-waves and travel through both solids and liquids. 4. Students will understand that S-waves travel slower than P-waves and only travel through solids. 5. Students will understand that both P and S-waves travel faster through denser materials. 6. Students will find the distance to an epicenter based on P and S-wave arrival times and the graph in the ESRTs. o Page 11 in the ESRTs has the P and S-Wave Travel Time graph. o The farther you are from the epicenter, the greater the time difference between the P and S-waves. 7. Given the distance to the epicenter and the arrival time of either the P or S wave students will calculate the arrival time of the other wave using the ESRTs. 8. Optional: Students will calculate the origin time of an earthquake based on the arrival times of either the P or S-wave and the distance to the epicenter, using the graph in the ESRTs. o Use the distance to the epicenter to find the travel time for either the P or S-wave. o Subtract the travel time of the P-wave from the arrival time of the P-wave to get the origin time. Or, subtract the travel time of the S-wave from the arrival time of the S-wave to get the origin time. 9. Students will identify properties of the Earth’s interior layers (crust, mantle, outer and inner core) using the ESRTs. o Use p. 10 in the ESRTs to find information about the Earth’s interior. 10. Students will understand that the properties of the internal layers can be identified or inferred based on P and S-wave behavior, magma compositions and meteorite composition. o Since S-waves won’t go through liquid, they will not go through the outer core. o Meteorites are primarily iron and nickel. We infer the Earth’s core is also iron and nickel. 11. Students will understand the reason for the earth quake “shadow zone.” o P and S-waves refract as they go through different layers of the Earth’s interior. Also, S-waves can’t pass through the liquid outer core. Thus, there are portions of the Earth where no earthquake waves will be detected. 12. Students will identify that major earthquakes, volcanoes and mountain ranges all tend to occur together in belts. o Page 5 in the ESRTs has the Plate Tectonic map. 13. Students will identify the earthquake belts as outlines of the major tectonic plates. 14. Students will identify seismic hazards, including but not limited to tsunamis, structural collapse, gas line rupture, and liquefaction. 15. Students will identify volcanic hazards, including but not limited to lava, ash, toxic gases, mudflows, and pyroclastic flow. 16. Students will identify the changes in continent location (“continental drift” and “plate tectonics”) based on evidence, including but not limited to ancient glacial evidence, fossil distribution, mid-ocean ridges, and magnetic reversals. 17. Students will identify the 3 plate boundaries and features found at each through use of the ESRTs. o Divergent plates separate from each other; convergent boundaries come together; transform boundary plates slide past each other. 18. Students will understand that convection drives plate movement. Convection currents are found in the mantle. 19. Students will recognize that “hot spots” are located on the lithosphere.