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Ecology Exam 2 Review
Exam is Wednesday 10/8
Complete each of the following sentences by choosing
the correct term from the word bank.
1. The breakdown of dead materials into carbon dioxide and
water is called _____________________.
2. The gradual development of a community over time is called
3. During ______________________, the heat causes water to
change from liquid to vapor.
4. ______________________ is the process of burning a
5. Water that falls from the atmosphere to the land and oceans is
______ 12. The pioneer species on bare rock are usually
a. ferns.
c. mosses.
______ 13. Which of the following is an example of primary
a. the recovery of Yellowstone National Park
following the fires of 1988
b. the appearance of lichens and mosses in an area
where a glacier has recently melted away
c. the growth of weeds in a field after a farmer
stops using the field
d. the growth of weeds in an empty lot that is no
longer being mowed
______ 14. One of the most common plants in a recently
abandoned farm field is
a. oak or maple trees.
c. mosses.
b. pine trees.
d. crabgrass.
6. In the process of ______________________, water vapor
VOCABULARY REVIEW: Cycles In Nature (Ch. 19)
1. precipitation that is stored between or within rocks _____
cools and returns to a liquid state.
2. the burning of a substance _______________
Multiple Choice
3. a gradual development of a community over time ______
______ 7. Clouds form in the atmosphere through the process
a. precipitation.
c. condensation.
b. respiration.
d. decomposition.
______ 8. Which of the following statements about
groundwater is true?
a. It stays underground for a few days.
b. It is stored in underground caverns or porous
c. It is salty like ocean water.
d. It never reenters the water cycle.
______ 9. Burning gas in an automobile is a type of
a. combustion.
c. decomposition.
b. respiration.
______ 10. Nitrogen in the form of a gas can be used directly by
some kinds of
a. plants.
c. bacteria.
b. animals.
d. fungi.
4. process that is the basis of the carbon cycle __________
5. process that changes nitrogen gas into forms that plants can
use ______________
6. process in which sugar molecules are broken down to release
energy ___________________
7. the variety of species that are present in an area ________
8. process in which water changes from liquid to vapor ____
9. water, in solid or liquid form, that falls from the atmosphere
to Earth ______________
10. a well-adapted species in a mature community ________
11. precipitation that falls on land and then flows into rivers and
lakes ___________________
12. the breakdown of substances into simpler molecular
substances _________________
13.the first species to colonize an uninhabited area _________
14. process in which plants release a large amount of water
vapor _______________
_______ 11. Bacteria are most important in the process of
a. combustion.
c. nitrogen fixation.
b. condensation.
d. evaporation.
15. kind of molecule that contains carbon ____________
16. process in which a vapor cools and returns to liquid _____
(Ch. 19 and 21 Vocab)
Cycles, Succession, Environmental Issues
Ecology Exam 2 Review
Exam is Wednesday 10/8
CYCLES OVERVIEW (Hi-Light or underline important info)
Water Cycle Summary
Water molecules are made of hydrogen and oxygen atoms.
Hydrogen and oxygen are nutrients that organisms need. Clearly
there is no problem obtaining these nutrients in aquatic
However, they are sometimes in short supply in terrestrial
ecosystems. The cycling of water in nature involves both aquatic
and terrestrial ecosystems and the air above them.
Water vapor enters the atmosphere through transpiration from
vegetation. Transpiration is the loss of water through pores in
the leaves of plants. It also enters the atmosphere through
evaporation from bodies of water and the soil. In the cool upper
atmosphere this vapor condenses, forming clouds. In time,
enough water collects in the clouds to cause precipitation. When
this occurs, some
of the water falling on the ground runs along the surface of the
ground to a stream, pond or other body of water. This is called
surface runoff. Some of the water also soaks into the ground by a
process called percolation. Some water percolates down to the
bedrock. Then it becomes ground water and gradually runs back
to lakes and other bodies of water.
Some of the water in the soil moves up to the roots of plants by
capillarity. The roots absorb the water. This is how most plants
get the hydrogen and oxygen they need. Animals can obtain water
by eating plants or by eating other animals. Of course, they can
also obtain water by drinking it directly from a body of water.
When plants and animals die, they decompose. During the
decomposition process, the water present in their tissues is
released into the environment.
Carbon Cycle Summary
Carbon is another nutrient that all organisms need. In fact, it is
the basic building block of all living things. Like water, carbon
moves through an ecosystem in a cycle.
Carbon is present in the atmosphere as carbon dioxide. Water also
contains carbon dioxide as it can dissolve it. Producers (plants
and algae) use it to perform photosynthesis and make food. Now
the carbon is in the producers. Herbivores eat the plants and
carnivores eat the herbivores. Now the carbon is in animals. Both
plants and animals respire. Their respiration returns carbon
dioxide to the atmosphere. Decomposers break down dead plants
and animals as well as animal waste. This too returns carbon
dioxide to the atmosphere or soil.
At one time, the carbon cycle was almost a perfect cycle. That is,
carbon was returned to the atmosphere as quickly as it was
removed. The increased burning of fossil fuels has added carbon
to the atmosphere faster than producers can remove it. Also,
deforestation reduces the amount of carbon dioxide being used in
photosynthesis. The use of land for agriculture releases carbon
dioxide into the environment.
Plants in water need carbon dioxide to perform photosynthesis
and release oxygen. Fish use the oxygen to breathe and the plants
for food. Thus, fish depend on the carbon dioxide cycle.
Nitrogen Cycle Summary
Nitrogen is another important nutrient that all organisms need.
All living things need nitrogen to make proteins. Let’s see how
this nutrient is recycled in ecosystems.
Almost 78% of the atmosphere is nitrogen. However, neither
plants nor animals can use this form of nitrogen directly. Usually,
the nitrogen must be in the form of chemicals called nitrate. Then
the plant roots can absorb it. Lightning forms some nitrate by
causing oxygen and nitrogen in the atmosphere to join. Rhizobium
bacteria can do the same thing. This type of bacteria lives on the
roots of plants called legumes such as beans, peas and alfalfa).
Many bacteria and blue-green algae also form nitrates. The
changing of nitrogen to nitrates is called nitrogen fixation.
Plants use the nitrates that they absorb to make plant proteins.
Animals get the nitrogen that they need to make proteins by eating
plants or other animals.
When plants and animals die, bacteria change their nitrogen
content to ammonia. The nitrogen in the urine and fecal matter of
animals is also changed to ammonia by bacteria. The pungent
odor of outhouses/porta-potties, chicken pens, hog yards, cat litter
boxes and wet baby diapers is ample evidence of this fact.
Ammonia, in turn, is converted to nitrites and then to nitrates by
bacteria. This process is called nitrification and completes the
main part of the cycle.
Many plants are able to use ammonia directly. Therefore all of it
does not have to be converted to nitrate before plants absorb it.
When people use synthetic fertilizers they add nitrite or nitrate
into the soil. This skips most of the nitrogen cycle and thus the
bacteria and microorganisms lose their food source.
Plants and algae in the water need nitrogen to grow. Some fish
species depend on these plants for food.
Some organic matter does not decompose easily. Instead it builds
up in the earth’s crust. Oil and coal were formed from the buildup of plant matter millions of years ago.
(Ch. 19 and 21 Vocab)
Cycles, Succession, Environmental Issues
Ecology Exam 2 Review
Exam is Wednesday 10/8
Match the labels to the letters on the drawing.
Match the labels to the letters on the
Match the labels to the letters on the drawing above.
soil nitrate
plant and animal and proteins
denitrifying bacteria in boggy soil
atmospheric nitrogen
(Ch. 19 and 21 Vocab)
Cycles, Succession, Environmental Issues
Ecology Exam 2 Review
Exam is Wednesday 10/8
a.succession b. primary succession
d. pioneer species
__ ___
c. secondary succession
e. climax species
1. first organisms to live in an area
______ 2. community growing in an area where organisms
have never lived
______ 3. well-adapted species in a mature community
______ 4. community growing in an area affected by a
______ 5. replacement of one type of community by another
over time
______ 1. The five major kinds of pollution are gases, noise,
garbage, chemicals, and
a. dirt.
c. radiation.
b. odors. d. rain.
______ 2. Using fewer natural resources and reducing wastes
can help
a. slow human population growth and increase
b. stop illness and create fossil fuels.
c. prevent biodiversity and destroy species.
d. end habitat destruction and reduce pollution.
______ 3. The number and variety of organisms in a given area
at a certain time is called
a. overpopulation.
c. biodiversity.
d. kingdoms.
______ 4. A habitat is home to many organisms, and
destroying a habitat affects
a. biodiversity.
c. resources
b. pollution.
d. weather.
______ 7. Wastes that can catch fire, eat through metal,
explode, or make people sick are
a. pesticides.
c.critical wastes.
b.hazardous wastes.
d. garbage.
______ 8. Using garbage and waste to make electricity is an
example of
a. resource recovery.
c. electrical destruction
b. resource renewal
d. electrical reuse.
______ 9. Three ways to conserve resources are reusing,
recycling, and
a. rebuilding.
c. reducing.
b. rethinking.
d. renewing.
______ 10. Human population growth has been made possible
because of
a. advances in farming and medicine.
b. unpolluted water and numerous landfills.
c. unlimited habitats and nuclear power.
d. increased industrial capacity and nuclear energy.
_______ 11. Which chemicals destroy protective ozone?
a. PCBs
c. radioactive wastes
d.carbon dioxide and oxygen
______ 12. The northern snakehead fish was introduced into
North America from Asia. It is an example of a
a. plant species.
c. exotic species.
b.endangered species d. renewable species.
Matching: Some terms will not be used.
a. nonpoint-source pollution
renewable resource
b. conservation
c. overpopulation
point-source pollution
d. nonrenewable resource
13.the preservation and wise use of natural resources
14 an unwanted change in the environment that is caused by
substances or forms of energy
______ 5. The process of recovering valuable or useful
materials from waste or scrap is called
. a. rebuilding.
c. reducing.
b. rethinking.
d. renewing.
15.pollution that comes from only one source
______ 6. People can help protect habitats by conserving
wetlands and
a. using pesticides.
c. reducing deforestation.
b. using nuclear power. d. not traveling.
.17a natural resource that forms more slowly than the rate at
which it is consumed
16.a natural resource that can be replaced at the same rate at
which the resource is consumed.
18.too many organisms in an area for the resources available
(Ch. 19 and 21 Vocab)
Cycles, Succession, Environmental Issues
Ecology Exam 2 Review
Exam is Wednesday 10/8
(Ch. 19 and 21 Vocab)
Cycles, Succession, Environmental Issues