FINAL EXAM REVIEW ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS IN YOUR JOURNAL Part A: Scientific Process Skills/Characteristics of Living Things 1. How do you find magnification on a microscope? Eyepiece x lens 2. What is the difference between a: control variable, independent variable and dependent variable? a. Control Variable – The “normal” sample. b. Independent Variable – the ONE variable in an experiment that is changed. c. Dependent Variable – the results of the experiment. 3. Give an example of quantitative data/qualitative data. a. Quantitative Data – involves numbers. There are 25 students in class. b. Qualitative Data – involves descriptions. Mrs. Reed has on a White Shirt. 4. What is the smallest biological unit that can carry on all the functions of life? A Cell 5. List characteristics of living things. a. All living things are made of CELLS. b. All living things require ENERGY. c. All living things RESPOND to a STIMULUS i. Stimulus – change in the environment. ii. Response – reaction to the change d. All living things reproduce. e. All living things contain DNA. f. All living thing GROW and DEVELOP. i. Growth – increase in size. ii. Development – increase in complexity (maturity) g. All living things change over time (EVOLUTION) 6. What is homeostasis? Internal balance in living things. 7. What is metabolism? All the chemical processes that happen in an organism. 8. How do adaptations allow organisms to survive? Adaptations are changes that allow an organism to better survive and therefore, evolve. 9. Differentiate among the following: a. Hypothesis – A proposed answer to a scientific question. b. Theory - A proposed explanation for a wide range of observations and experimental results that is supported by a wide range of evidence. c. Observation – Using your five senses to collect information about the world around you. 10. How many variables are tested in a controlled experiment? ONE 11. How do you calculate magnification of a microscope? Lens x Eyepiece 12. Define science. Science means “to know” 13. How are stimulus and response related? Provide and example of this relationship. a. Stimulus = change b. Response = reaction to that change c. Ex: When hot, you sweat, when cold you shiver. 14. Why do scientists publish results of experiments? To share their results and let others repeat their experiments. Part B: Ecology 1. List the levels of Ecological organization from most specific to broadest. Organism (species) Population Community Ecosystem Biome Biosphere 2. Define/give examples of each level a. Organism – squirrel b. Population – group of squirrels c. Community – squirrels, foxes, grass, trees, people d. Ecosystem - squirrels, foxes, grass, trees, people + rocks, sun, dirt, water e. Biome – deciduous forest f. Biosphere – living parts of the Earth 3. Give examples of Biotic and Abiotic factors in an environment. a. Biotic – all the living elements (plants, animals, bacteria) b. Abiotic – all the non-living elements (water, rocks, dirt, sun) 4. What is the difference between habitat and niche? a. Habitat – where an organism lives. b. Niche – how the organism carries out its day to day activities (hunting, sleeping, drinking) 5. Define symbiosis. Interactions between living things where at least one organism benefits. a. Describe the 3 types of symbiosis. i. Mutualsim – relationship in which BOTH organisms benefit (++) ii. Commensalism – relationship in which one organism benefits and the other is neither hurt nor harmed (+0) iii. Parasitism – relationship in which one organism benefits and the other IS harmed (+-) b. Give examples of each. i. Mutualism – bees and flowers, hippos and birds. ii. Commensalism – Eagle living in a tree. iii. Parasitism – fleas and ticks on dogs, tapeworms in humans 6. Define and give examples of predation and competition. a. Predation – when one animal hunts and eats another animal. Ex: lion and zebras. b. Competition – when animals fight for resources. i. Interspecific – Different species compete. Ex: human and monkey fight over a banana. ii. Intraspecific – Same species compete. Ex: males fighting over mates. 7. What is the relationship between predator and prey in an ecosystem? As prey increase, predators increase. As prey decrease, predators decrease. 8. What does the competitive exclusion principle state? No two organisms can occupy the same niche at the same time. 9. Construct a food chain. Label: producer, consumer, primary consumer, secondary consumer, 1st trophic level, 2nd trophic level etc… Sun Grass Deer Bear Producer Primary Consumer Secondary Consumer st nd 1 trophic 2 trophic 3rd trophic 10. Describe the rule of 10. As energy moves up a food chain (energy pyramid) only 10% of the available energy is passed on. 11. What is biomass? The amount of living material in an ecosystem. 12. The law of conservation of energy states that: energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transferred. 13. List and describe the major land biomes. a. Desert – extreme temperatures, dry, organisms modified to deal with heat and little water. b. Tundra – frozen desert, permafrost, animals adapted to cold. c. Deciduous forest – all 4 seasons, plants that lose leaves in fall, where you live. d. Coniferous Forest – contains evergreens (trees that do not lose their leaves). Cold winters, warm summers. e. Tropical Rain Forest – most diverse living things, high levels of rain. f. Grasslands – lush grasses, large herbivores. 14. Describe the steps in Primary Land Succession. Soil is destroyed, begin with rock, caused by volcanoes and glaciers. Pioneer species come in, then plants and animals. 15. Describe the steps in Secondary Land Succession. Soil is still there, caused by abandoned land or fire and flood. Can regrow plants quickly due to soil. 16. What are pioneer species, give examples. First species to come in during primary succession. Ex: lichens and mosses. 17. What is the primary energy source for ALL living things? The SUN 18. Give 3 examples of density dependent limiting factors. Food, water, shelter, mates, disease. 19. Give 2 examples of density independent limiting factors. Fire, floods, humans. 20. What causes acid rain? Sulfur in the atmosphere. 21. What is biomagnification? When toxins like DDT (pesticide) go through the food chain, they become more concentrated as you move up the food chain. Ex: bald eagles almost destroyed due to DDT> 22. Draw a exponential growth curve and a logistic growth curve. 23. What is carrying capacity? The total population an ecosystem can support. 24. What happens to a population as it reaches carrying capacity? Competition increases. 25. What do emigration and immigration do to population size? a. Emigration = population decrease. b. Immigration = population increase 26. What is the effect of birth rate and death rate on a population? a. Birth rate greater than death rate = population increase. b. Death rate greater than birth rate = population decrase. c. Birth rate equals death rate = NO population growth. 27. Describe phototropism, gravitropism and thigmotropism. a. Phototropism – plant response to light. b. Gravitropism – plant response to gravity. c. Thigmotropsim – plant response to touch. Part C: Biochemistry 1. Fill in the following chart: Polymer Monomer Monsaccharide Carbohydrate Lipid Triglyceride Uses Energy Insulation, protection, energy Drawing Examples Sugar, glucose, starch, cellulose, glycogen, lactase Fats, oils, waxes Protein Amino acids Structure Hair, nails, skin, muscle Nucleic Acid Nucleotides To code for proteins DNA and RNA 2. What is an enzyme? Proteins catalysts that speed up the rates of reaction by lowering activation energy. 3. How do enzymes help chemical reactions? Lower activation energy. 4. Draw and label an enzyme. 5. What is activation energy? Energy needed to start a reaction. 6. What is the difference between an endothermic and exothermic reaction? a. Endothermic – absorbs energy b. Exothermic – releases energy 7. What are the 4 most abundant elements in living things? Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorous, Sulfur (CHONPS) Part D: Cell Structure and Movement 1. List the 3 statements of the cell theory. a. All living things are made of cells. b. Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things. c. Cells comes from pre-existing cells. 2. Draw and label a plant and animal cell. Describe the function of each organelle. Be sure to include: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. m. cell membrane - controls what enters and leaves the cell. Lysosomes – contains enzymes that breakdown materials and clean animal cells. Cytoplasm – jelly-like fluid that contains all the cell organelles. Vacuole – large storage area in plant cells. cell wall – maintain the structure of plant cells, made of cellulose golgi body – packages and ships materials needed for the cell. Nucleus – houses the DNA which controls the functions of the cell. Chloroplasts – green structures in plant cells. The site of photosynthesis Nucleolus – makes ribosomes Mitochondria – found in ALL cells. The site of cellular respiration (energy production) DNA – genetic material in the nucleus of cells. Direct the cell to make proteins. Nuclear Membrane – controls what enters and leaves the nucleus Endoplasmic Reticulum (Rough and Smooth) – transports material through the cell. Rough contains ribosomes. n. Ribosomes – site of protein synthesis 3. What is the cell membrane made of? A phospholipid bilayer, that contains proteins, and carbohydrates. 4. What is the difference between a prokaryote and a eukaryote? a. Prokaryotes – NO nucleus, NO membrane-bound organelles. b. Eukaryotes – have a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles. More complex. 5. How does the cell membrane help maintain homeostasis? It controls what enters and leaves the cell. 6. What is homeostasis? Maintaining an internal balance. 7. In osmosis, describe what happens in Isotonic, Hypertonic and Hypotonic solutions. a. Isotonic – balanced. Water movement is equal in and out of the cell. b. Hypertonic – more solute outside the cell. Water moves out of the cell and the cell shrinks. c. Hypotonic – more solute is inside the cell. Water moves into the cell and the cell swells. 8. What is the difference between Passive Transport and Active Transport? a. Passive Transport – NO energy b. Active Transport – Needs energy (ATP) 9. Is facilitated diffusion passive or active? Explain. Passive. Particles move through a passage way with the concentration gradient. 10. List the levels of organization from simples to most complex. Cell tissueorgan organ system organism Part E: Cell Energetics 1. What is photosynthesis? Process in which plants take in Carbon Dioxide and Water and Create Glucose and Oxygen 2. Why is photosynthesis important to all living things? It creates Glucose which is the energy source that creates ATP. 3. Write the equation for photosynthesis? 6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2 4. Where does photosynthesis take place? In the chloroplasts. 5. What are the products of the light reactions that are used in the Calvin cycle? ATP, NADPH 6. Describe the structure and significance of an ATP molecule. Provides energy for living things. 7. In photosynthesis, when are complex carbohydrates made? The Calvin Cycle 8. What is Cellular Respiration? Process by which glucose and oxygen are used to create carbon dioxide, water and ATP (Energy) 9. Why is cellular respiration important to all living things? Provides the energy for life. 10. Write the equation for cellular respiration. C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + 36 ATP 11. Where does cellular Respiration take place? Mitochondria 12. Name some reactions that occur during cellular respiration. Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, Electron Transport Chain 13. List three events during Glycolysis. Glucose enters the cytoplasm, Glucose is split, Pyruvic Acid and ATP are created. 14. Define fermentation. Process of Anaerobic Respiration. 15. What is lactic acid fermentation and where does it commonly occur? Occurs in muscle cells when oxygen is NOT available. Produces lactic acid and 2 ATP 16. What molecule is formed at the end of the electron transport chain? ATP 17. Citric acid is part of which cycle? Krebs Cycle Part F: Cell Division 1. Explain the process of cell division. Include: Interphase, Mitosis and Cytokinesis. 2. What is the difference between Cytokinesis in plant and animal cells. Plant cells create a cell plate to rebuild the cell wall. Animal cells have cleavage. 3. What are chromatids? Chromatin wrapped around proteins. 4. What are chromosomes and when do they form? Chromosomes are visible DNA. They form when 2 sister chromatids come together. 5. What is binary fission? Asexual reproduction in Bacteria. Basic copy and divide. If you know everything on this sheet you are MORE than prepared for your final…..STUDY!!