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Geology Study Guide
A. Vocabulary:
1. erosion- removes or relocates Earth’s materials
2. weathering- breaks down Earth’s materials
3. minerals- pure substances found in nature
4. fossils- plant or animal prints found in rock
5. volcano- formed by molten rock pushed to the surface
6. earthquake- pressure inside the Earth causes the crust to move
B. Students should be able to answer questions about the following information.
 Name four things that make up the Earth’s surface: soil, air, water, and rocks.
 Name two things that make up soil: rocks, minerals, water, decaying plant and
animal matter.
 Name and explain two quick changes to the surface of the Earth. Examples:
volcano- molten rock pushed to the surface making a cone or domeshaped hill
earthquake- pressure inside the earth causing the crust to move forming
cracks or lifting the Earth's crust
 Name and explain two slow changes to the surface of the Earth. Examples:
glacier- a large piece of ice that scrapes the earth and carries rocks
erosion- wind, water, or ice moving Earth's materials from one place to
another
weathering- water or wind breaking down Earth’s materials
 Name two types of Earth materials and how they are used. Examples: sand is
used to make glass, clay is used to make brick, coal is used to make fuel, gold
is used for jewelry, oil is used to make plastics
 Name three ways to sort a rock: weight, size, shape, color, texture