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AP Biology
BODY SYSTEMS NOTES
TISSUES
Epithelial
Connective
Nervous
Muscle
MUSCULAR SYSTEM
Skeletal Muscle:
Smooth Muscle:
Cardiac Muscle:
MUSCLE STRUCTURE:
Muscle fiber (Myofibril):
Sarcomere:
Actin:
Myosin:
REGULATION IN THE HUMAN BODY
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM (Coordination and Control)- Endocrine system will be talked
about later
Hormones:
What is a stimulus?
How does the hormone get to the target cell?
What is the target cell and how does a hormone “know” which target
cell to bind to?
Homeostasis:
Negative Feedback vs Positive Feedback and Examples:
INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM and REGULATION
Epidermis
Dermis
Hypodermis (Fat)
The skin and homeostasis:
CIRCULATORY REGULATION
Thermoregulation:
Vasodilation vs Vasoconstriction
Countercurrent exchange
OSMOREGULATION AND EXCRETORY SYSTEM
Osmoregulation vs Osmoconformer and Diffusion/Osmosis
EXCRETORY SYSTEM
Function:
In the Earthworm…..
Metanephridia
In Mammals…..
Nephron:
Structure/Function in Nephron:
Filtration and Reabsorption:
Hormonal Circuits and Kidney Functin/Water Balance
ADH:
Excretion in Animals:
Fish and Amphibians:
Reptiles:
Birds:
Mammals:
Digestion and Energy Allocation/Use
Metabolic rate:
How can we determine metabolic rate?
Comparing metabolic rate of ectotherm vs endotherm
What else affects metabolic rate?
NERVOUS SYSTEM
Central Nervous System:
Peripheral Nervous System:
Neuron (cell body, dendrites, axon)
Glial Cells
Synapse
Neurotransmitters:
Membrane potential:
Resting potential:
Relative concentration of K+ and Na+ at resting potential:
Use of sodium
potassium pumps:
Depolarization:
Action Potential:
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM:
Hormones:
How do the endocrine and nervous system work together?
Target Cell:
What are chemical signals?
What are endocrine glands?
What are exocrine glands?
Signaling: Reception, Transduction, Response……Remember this???
Hormone examples:
Epinephrine and norepinephrine
Insulin and Diabetes:
Corticosteroids:
IMMUNE SYSTEM
Function:
Innate Immunity:
Acquired Immunity:
NONSPECIFIC IMMUNE RESPONSE
Examples of barrier defenses:
Cellular innate defenses:
The purpose of the inflammatory response:
SPECIFIC IMMUNE RESPONSE:
T- Cells
B- Cells
Antigen:
What do B-cells give rise to?
Humoral Immune Response:
Cell- Mediated Immune Response
Active vs Passive Immunity:
How do immunizations work?
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
Pathway of Digestion:
What is in the stomach that aids in digestion?
What happens in the…..
Small intestine:
Villi:
Large intestine:
What is the significance of a highly folder small intestine
Interesting Mutualistic Adaptations:
CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
Diffusion across surface (cnidarian, flatworm)
Benefits of a closed circulatory system:
Circulatory System in….
Fish
Amphibians
Reptiles
Birds/Mammals
Pulmonary vs Systemic Circuit
Benefits of double circulation
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
Function:
Significance of respiratory surfaces
Flow of air across gills in fish
Structures of Respiratory System:
Alveoli/Surface area
Capillaries