1) Which of the following statements regarding sexual and asexual reproduction is true? A) Cell division only occurs after sexual reproduction. B) Only offspring from asexual reproduction inherit traits from two parents. C) Sexual reproduction typically includes the development of unfertilized eggs. D) Sexual reproduction is more likely to increase genetic variation than is asexual reproduction. E) Only asexual reproduction results from the union of a sperm and an egg. 2) Which of the following statements regarding cell division is false? A) Cell division can reproduce an entire organism. B) Cell division is necessary for development to occur. C) Cell division ensures the continuity of life from generation to generation. D) Cell division is the basis of both sexual and asexual reproduction. E) Cell division is common in eukaryotes but rare in prokaryotes. 3) Which of the following helps maintain the structure of chromosomes and control the activity of genes? A) the nuclear membrane B) proteins C) centromeres D) ribosomes E) lipids 4) Sister chromatids are A) found right after a cell divides. B) tightly linked together at a centromere. C) formed when chromatids separate during cell division. D) made only of DNA. E) unique to prokaryotes. 5) Eukaryotic cells spend most of their cell cycle in which phase? A) interphase B) prophase C) metaphase D) anaphase E) telophase 6) The genetic material is duplicated during A) the mitotic phase. B) G1. C) the S phase. D) G2. E) mitosis. 7) If the S phase were eliminated from the cell cycle, the daughter cells would A) have half the genetic material found in the parent cell. B) be genetically identical to each other. C) be genetically identical to the parent cell. D) synthesize the missing genetic material on their own. E) continue to function without the normal amount of DNA. 8) Looking into your microscope, you spot an unusual cell. Instead of the typical rounded cell shape, the cell has a very narrow middle separating two bulging ends. It sort of looks like the number 8! Then you realize that this cell is A) undergoing cytokinesis. B) in the S phase of interphase. C) in the G1 phase of interphase. D) in the G2 phase of interphase. E) about to undergo mitosis. 9) At the start of mitotic anaphase, A) the centromeres of each chromosome come apart. B) sister chromatids separate. C) the chromatid DNA replicates. D) daughter chromosomes begin to move toward opposite poles of the cell. E) equivalent and complete collections of chromosomes have reached the two poles. 10) Which of the following features likely accounts for the difference between plant and animal cell cytokinesis? A) Animal cells lack the microfilaments required for forming a cleavage furrow. B) Animal cells lack chloroplasts. C) Plant cell division must maintain the integrity of the cell wall. D) Plant cells have two sets of chromosomes; animal cells have one set of chromosomes. E) Plant and animal cells do not have a common ancestor. 11) Mature human nerve cells and muscle cells A) remain undifferentiated unless an injury occurs. B) become cancerous more easily than other cell types. C) continue to divide throughout their lifetime. D) are permanently in a state of nondivision. E) cease dividing after a predetermined number of cell generations. 12) Which of the following statements regarding the function of mitosis is false? A) Mitosis allows organisms to grow. B) Mitosis allows organisms to generate genetic diversity. C) Mitosis allows organisms to reproduce asexually. D) Mitosis allows organisms to repair tissues. E) Mitosis allows organisms to regenerate lost parts. 13) Which of the following statements regarding mitosis and meiosis is false? A) Meiosis only occurs in the ovaries and testes. B) All sexual life cycles involve an alternation of diploid and haploid stages. C) Mitosis produces daughter cells with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. D) A normal human zygote has 46 chromosomes. E) A haploid cell has half the chromosomes of a diploid cell. 14) During which stage of meiosis does synapsis and the formation of tetrads occur? A) interphase I B) prophase I C) interphase II D) prophase II E) metaphase I 15) Both mitosis and meiosis are preceded by A) prometaphase. B) interphase. C) prophase. D) telophase. E) anaphase. 16) Nondisjunction occurs when A) a portion of a chromosome breaks off and is lost. B) chromosomes replicate too many times. C) two chromosomes fuse into one. D) members of a chromosome pair fail to separate. E) an entire pair of chromosomes is lost during meiosis I. 17) Which of the following statements about nondisjunction is false? A) Nondisjunction in meiosis can affect autosomes and sex chromosomes. B) In mammals, extra copies of the Y chromosome are typically inactivated. C) The absence of a Y chromosome results in "femaleness." D) In general, a single Y chromosome is enough to produce "maleness." E) Women with a single X chromosome have Turner syndrome and are sterile. 18) If a chromosome fragment breaks off and then reattaches to the original chromosome, but in the reverse direction, the resulting chromosomal abnormality is called a(n) A) deletion. B) inversion. C) translocation. D) nondisjunction. E) reciprocal translocation. Identification: Sketch the cell at the tip of the arrow and identify the stage. Then, label the directed number of parts. Essay (worth 4 points each) 1. Does a cell in metaphase II have the same mass of DNA as a diploid cell in the G1 phase of the cell cycle? Assume that both cells are from the same animal. Explain your answer. 2. A mule is the offspring of a horse and donkey. A donkey sperm contains 31 chromosomes and a horse egg cell contains 32 chromosomes, so the zygote contains a total of 63 chromosomes. The zygote develops normally. The combined set of chromosomes is not a problem for mitosis, and includes some of the best characteristics of donkeys and horses. However, a mule is sterile; meiosis cannot occur normally in its testes (ovaries). Explain why mitosis is normal in cells containing both horse and donkey chromosomes but the mixed set interferes with meiosis.