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Chapter 7 Test Study Guide
Lesson 7.1: Body Organization
*The levels of organization: cells, tissue, organ, organ system, organism.
Basic Structures of the Cell:
cell – basic unit of structure
cell membrane – the outside border of a cell
nucleus – directs the cell’s activities and holds information that controls a cell’s function
cytoplasm – a clear jellylike substance that contains many cell structures
tissue – a group of similar cells that perform the same function
muscle tissue – carries out movement; makes parts of your body move
3 Types of muscle tissue
Skeletal muscle tissue (muscle that connects to bones)
Smooth muscle tissue (muscle that makes up the internal organs)
Cardiac muscle tissue (muscle that makes up the heart)
nervous tissue – directs and controls the process; carries electrical messages back & forth between the
brain and other parts of the body
connective tissue – provides support for your body and connects all its parts
epithelial tissue – covers the surface of your body, inside and out; such as your skin, protects the
delicate structures that lie beneath it
Organs & Organ systems
organ – a structure that is made up of different kinds of tissue
organ system – a group of organs that work together, carrying out major functions
**Refer to the orange charts on pgs 246-247. Study the various structures and functions of all the body
systems. Be able to recall or match sample structures/functions to the proper system. You can also
study the body systems chart from class.
7.2: System Interactions
Body Movements (skeletal/muscular)
*Muscles and bones make your body move; the nervous system tells your muscles when to act.
Muscles make bones move at their joints.
skeleton – all the bones in your body
skeletal muscle – attached to the bones of your skeleton and provide the force that moves your bones
joint – a place in the body where two bones come together
Hinge joins (knee, elbow)
Ball & socket (shoulder, hip)
Tendons-connects muscle to bone
Ligaments-connects bones to bones
*The circulatory, respiratory, digestive, and excretory systems move materials in your body.
Gas Exchange (Respiratory)
Oxygen enters the lungs when you inhale. The oxygen diffuses into the bloodstream in the lungs and
gets carried to and diffuses into body cells, where the oxygen is used for cell respiration. Carbon dioxide
(waste) diffuses out of the cells into the bloodstream, where it is circulated to the lungs to be exhaled.
Obtaining Food/Nutrients(Digestive)
Food gets broken down into its smaller nutrients by the digestive system to be absorbed into the
bloodstream. The nutrients get circulated to the body cells to be used for cellular processes. Materials
not absorbed in digestion are removed as solid waste.
nutrient – a substance that you get from food and that your body needs to carry out processes, such as
contracting muscles
absorption – nutrients move from the digestive system into the bloodstream
Excreting Cellular Wastes(Excretory)
The respiratory system removes the CO2 from the body. Other cellular wastes (besides CO2) diffuse out
of cells into the bloodstream to be carried to the excretory system. The kidneys filter out wastes in the
blood and remove them from the body through urination.
*The nervous and endocrine system work together to control body functions.
Endocrine System
glands– organs that release chemical signals (hormones) directly into the bloodstream
hormone – chemical signals released by the endocrine system; transported through your body by the
circulatory system
Hormones get released from glands into the bloodstream. Hormones are specific and will circulate in
the blood to certain tissues/cells. Hormones help regulate different things in the body, such as sugar
and water levels in the blood, response to danger, and they can affect reproductive structures in both
males and females. Most hormones are naturally produced by the body as needed.
Nervous System
stimulus – a signal in the environment that makes you react
response – what your body does in reaction to a stimulus
Be able recognize or give an example of a stimulus and the response one might have to that stimulus.
Ex: Stimulus: you see your favorite snack on the kitchen counter after school-Physiological (body)
Response: your mouth begins to water.
7.3: Homeostasis
*All of your body systems work together to maintain homeostasis, keeping the body in balance.
Homeostasis – the condition in which an organism’s internal environment is kept stable in spite of changes in the
outside environment
Internal body temperature, energy and water levels, and balance are some areas where homeostasis must be
stress – the reaction of your body to possibly threatening, challenging, or uncomfortable events
Each person interprets and responds to stress differently. Not all stress is bad stress.
Typically, when homeostasis is maintained (when your body systems are able to keep internal conditions stable or
balanced), you are considered healthy. When homeostasis is disrupted, one may get sick. The immune system has
specialized cells that may attack and try to destroy pathogens, or disease causing things, such as viruses. The
immune system uses much energy to fight off disease. It produced extra disease-fighting cells in times when you
are sick.
Stress, a lack of sleep, and a poor diet are things that can negatively impact how well your immune system works.
7.4: The Human Life Cycle
*The changes that take place between infancy and adulthood include physical changes, such as an increase in
size. Also, mental changes, such as the ability to communicate and think critically, also take place.
1.Infancy-stage from birth to around 2 yrs old; marked by much growth, development of nervous & muscular
systems, learning to walk, speak and follow simple instruction.
2.Childhood-the stage between infancy & adolescence; marked by much growth, improved coordination,
increasing mental abilities, improved language skills.
3.Adolescence-time marked by physical and mental maturity into adulthood;
adolescence – stage during which children start to become adults physically and mentally, also known as “going
through puberty”
puberty – period of physical sexual development that usually leads to the ability to reproduce
4.Adulthood-stage after adolescence; marked by continued mental, emotional, and physical growth; aging in
adults becomes more visible with time; certain reproductive and hormonal changes occurs later in adulthood.
7.5: Taking Care of Your Body
*Good nutrition gives your body energy and the nutrients needed to grow, develop, and work properly. It can
help you live a long, healthy life.
Review the food guide pyramid for some sample foods from the different food groups. Be able to classify foods in
the proper food group. Pg.270
*Exercise benefits your health, including having stronger muscles & bones, better endurance, and increased
endurance – the ability to exercise for a long time without tiring
*Smoking, drinking alcohol, and taking drugs can cause addiction and health problems.
addiction – a physical dependence of a drug, alcohol, etc…
drug – any chemical taken into the body that causes changes in a person’s body or behavior
drug abuse – deliberate use of a drug or medicine for nonmedical purposes or the use of an illegal drug