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Weight Lifting Terms and Principles
Mr. Phillips
5 Fitness Components
1. Aerobic/cardio vascular capacity: The ability of the body to transfer oxygen to
the muscles during exercise.
2. Muscular Strength: The amount of force a muscle can exert for one repetition.
3. Muscular Endurance: A muscles ability to move a sub maximal weight for
maximal repetitions.
4. Flexibility: The range of motion of a joint brought about by stretching of the
5. Body Composition: Ratio of fat to the muscle and bone in the body
Lifting Principles
1. Warm Up: Use a light weight to warm up muscles before the actual lifting
2. Breathing: Inhale while lowering the weight and exhale as lifting it.
3. Exercise Sequence: It is usually a good idea to train large muscle groups before
small ones for maximal strength gains.
4. Positive and Negative Lifting Phase: Both phases contribute to strength and
endurance development. Weight should be raised and lowered slowly for maximal
benefits. Faster lifts are for advanced lifters who are training for speed
5. High Intensity Muscle Recruitment. High intensity exercise involves
continuous repetitions designed to momentarily exhaust a muscle group. Select a
weight so that the last 1-2 repetitions are very difficult.
Lifting Facts
1. “Use it or lose it”: Muscles that are exercised regularly increase in size and
efficiency: those that are neglected become small and weak.
2. Lifting: The most effective method of increasing muscle size and strength is
weight lifting.
3. Muscle Size: Weight lifting will not necessarily produce oversized, bulky
muscles unless you are training to do so. If you are training for sports or fitness
you will not get overly large but will improve your shape.
4. Flexibility: Lifting will not cause muscle boundness or lack of flexibility. It will
help increase it.
5. Strength Benefits: Strength is important to help prevent injuries. It increases the
density in bones, ligaments and tendons. It improves appearance and performance
in all fitness activities and sports.
6. Muscle Burns Calories: Lifting should be a part of any weight loss program. The
more muscle a person has the more calories they will burn. Muscle consumes
more calories than fat. Muscle will burn calories even while sleeping.
1. Bodybuilding: Isolates muscle groups and focuses on size and symmetry.
2. Olympic Lifting: Demanding athletic lifts. Olympic sport. Consists of snatch and
clean lifts.
3. Power Lifting: Also a sport. Consists of the squat, deadlift and bench press lifts
Nuts and Bolts of a Weight Lifting Program
1. Repetitions: Individual lifts, or for example each time you move a weight up and
2. Sets: Combinations of repetitions.
3. Exercises: Performed in sets and repetitions. You can change the sets and reps in
a number of ways to produce different results for your exercise.
4. Workouts: Collections of exercises you decide to put together and perform in one
5. Program: A collection of workouts put together for a certain length of time with
the goal of producing a desired outcome. A desired outcome may be losing
weight, getting stronger, jumping higher, looking better or many other things.
Weight Lifting Variables
1. Repetitions: The number of times an exercise is performed through the complete
range of motion without rest.
 A high number (9-20) with a lighter weight tends to produce muscular
endurance changes.
 A lower number (1-8) with heavier weights tends to favor strength
 For a combination 6-10 reps are recommended.
2. Sets: A group of repetitions for a particular exercise.
 2-3 sets are usually recommended for general fitness.
 Usually perform sets of an exercise together with about one minute rest
between exercises for general fitness. Other methods should be learned
when one becomes a more advanced lifter.
3. Weight = Resistance: Choose a weight you can lift for your desired reps and no
more without losing form.
4. Rest Interval between Sets: Time rested between sets. Could be from 15 seconds
to over five minutes depending on the desired outcome.
5. Rest Intervals between Workouts: Time rested between working out certain
muscle groups. Best results occur between 48-96 hours.
Use a spotter for exercises involving a heavy weight.
Avoid attempting to move more resistance than you can safely handle.
Secure collars before starting lift.
Stay clear of individuals engaging in a lift.
Avoid distractions.
Avoid holding your breath to prevent blackouts.
All lifts should be done in a controlled manner. No banging weights.
Pick up weights properly.
Daily Log Importance
Helps you know when to increase the workload. Weight, sets, reps, intensity
Helps you know where to start when you take time off.
Observe your gains. See where you have improved and where you need work.
Motivation: See how you have progressed
Use as a toll to avoid over training
 Aerobic- Cardio vascular system development with the use of oxygen.
 After Burn-the calories expended due to an increase in your metabolism
following exercise.
 Anaerobic- high intensity exercise (sprinting) where there is no time for oxygen
use, so oxygen debt is created.
 Body Building- designed to build and accentuate the muscles for looks rather
than strength.
 Body Composition –major structure components of the body; muscle, fat, bone.
 Concentric Contraction-muscle contraction, which the muscle shortens while
overcoming resistance. Positive phase of lift.
 Eccentric Contraction-contraction in which the muscle lengthens while
combating the pull of gravity. Negative phase of lift.
 Cool Down-5 to 10 minutes of very light exercise movements at the end of a
work out to cool the body to near core temperature.
 Daily Log-an accounting of daily activity.
 Flexibility- the range of motion at the joint.
 Frequency-how often one engages in exercise. Preferably a minimum of three
days a week on alternating days.
 Heart Rate-the number of heart (beats) contractions in one minute.
 Intensity-the minimum heart rate necessary to bring about cardio vascular
 Interval Training-a routine consisting of four elements: intensity, duration, reps.,
rest intervals.
 Lactic Acid- a chemical causing fatigue produced by the metabolism when
oxygen is insufficient to meet the oxygen needs during exercise.
 Maximum Repetition (RM)-the amount of weight with which an individual can
perform a specified number of repetitions, for example: 8rm is the amount of
weight with which one can perform only 8 repetitions.
 Muscular Endurance-a muscles ability to perform sub maximum contractions
against the resistance.
 Muscular Strength-the amount of force a muscle can exert for one repetition.
 Negative Resistance-lowering phase of weight lifting.
 Overtraining-excessively hard training day after day; failure to alternate light
and heavy workouts. Causes fatigue, irritability and irregular sleep patterns.
 Progressive Overload-the theory of gradually increasing the work load during
each workout in order to build muscular strength.
 Range of Motion-associated with flexibility-it is the movement possible around
the joint.
 Sets-groups of muscular repetitions preformed for a particular movement or
 Soreness-arises after an exercise which is associated with new activity or higher
than normal intensity. Lasts 1-3 days.
 Target Heart Rate-a heart rate 60 to 70% of the distance between the resting and
maximum rates: must be maintained during exercise to produce a training effect.
 Time-the amount necessary to maintain a conditioning H.R (intensity) which is
high enough to have a training effect.
 Warm Up- the preparation of the body for vigorous activity through callisthenic
and running movements designed to raise core temperature.
 Work Load- the amount of weight designated for performing a particular