Week 21 CCA Review Week 21 CCA Test on Friday, February 3 Vocabulary Match the vocabulary cards together. When you are finished, write the definition with the matching definition below: Word Bank: Galapagos Speciation Natural Selection Adaptation “Orgin of the Species” Vestigial Organs Extinction Variation Homologous Structure “Descent with Modification” Finches Fossil Overproduction Population Embryology ________________ 1.) The formation of a new species. This can happen because of Geographic Isolation, mutations and environmental pressures. ________________ 2.) The book Darwin published that explains the process of Evolution by natural selection. ________________ 3.) Genetic diversity within the same species.. ________________ 4.) The type of birds studied by Darwin. Beaks are different depending on their food source. ________________ 5.) A group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area. ________________ 6.) The Islands that Darwin sailed to and collected thousands of specimens. ________________ 7.) An inherited characteristic that increases an organism’s chance of survival. ________________ 8.) The total dying-out of a species ________________ 9.) Principle that each living species has descended, with changes, from other species over time. ________________ 10.) Producing more offspring that is needed to ensure that some will survive to adulthood. ________________ 11.) Process by which individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce successfully. “Survival of the Fittest” ________________ 12.) Organ that serves no useful purpose. ________________ 13.) The preserved remains of a living organism. ________________ 14.) The study of how embryos can provide evidence for evolution. ________________ 15.) The diagram below pictures forelimb bones of 4 different mammals. They provided evidence in support of a common ancestor because they are similar in structure and were produced from the same embryonic tissue. Figure 2 16.) The fossil record has provided evidence for which time period dinosaurs inhabited. Using figure 2 above, Which group of dinosaurs occupied both the Jurassic and Cretaceous time periods? 17.) Using figure 2, which group of dinosaurs only occupied the Cretaceous period? Phylogenetic Trees like the one pictured below illustrate how the process of change over time produces today’s diversity in species. Use the phylogenetic tree below to answer questions 18 – 20. Present A B C E F D Past 18.) Which group is closer in relation to group A on the tree? 19.) Explain what happened to groups D and E on the tree. 20.) Group E represents a type of amphibian on the phylogenetic tree. What then should that tell you about group F. A group of students wanted to study the effectiveness of a disinfectant on the bacteria found in the lab room. They grew bacterial colonies from cultures collected off the lab tables. They collected bacteria off the lab tables before sanitation with an antibacterial disinfectant, immediately after the disinfectant was used, and 24 hours after the disinfectant was used. Their data can be found below. Disinfectant Effectiveness on Bacterial Colonies Number of Bacterial Colonies 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Before Disinfectant After Disfectant 24 hours After Disinfectant 21.) In the experiment above, not all of the bacterial colonies were destroyed by the disinfectant. What might this mean for the future generations of bacterial colonies like the ones visible 24 hours after the disinfectant was used? Use the diagram below to answer questions 22-24 Population A Population B 22.) Above are two different populations of Tribbles. Which population group is more likely to survive a change in environment? Explain. 23.) Which population is at a higher risk of extinction due to limited genetic variability? Explain. 24.) In the population B of Tribbles, what could have contributed to the variation of species displayed? 25.) In the drift worm lab, you witnessed the gene pools of the worms gradually change over time due to random chance. This process illustrates ____________________ __________________________ 26.) Genetic drift is the random change in allele frequencies that occurs in small populations. Are all populations influenced by genetic drift? 27.) In order for a population to have the greatest potential for evolutionary change it will need to display Asexual / Sexual reproduction and many / few mutations. 28.) In your own words restate the endosymbiotic theory. 29.) According to the endosymbiotic theory which two organelles derived (came from) ancient prokaryotic organisms? 30.) The endosymbiotic theory states that chloroplast originally came from ancient _______________ prokaryotes. The Story of MRSA MRSA is an acronym that stands for Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. If Staphylococcus aureus enters an open wound, it can cause a minor to severe infection of the skin. If the infection is not stopped, it can become life threatening or even fatal. Staph was initially discovered in 1880. Originally, penicillin was used to treat Staph infections. However, over time Staph became resistant. Methicillin was then introduced to treat Staph infections, however a growng population of Staph is resistant to Methicillin as well. 31.) Use the story above to answer the following questions. Which evolutionary process was responsible for Staphylococcus aureus developing a resistance to antibiotics? 32.) Many species require millions of years to evolve through generations. Why was Staphylococcus aureus able to develop so rapidly? Figure 2 How human cytochrome c differs from cytochrome c found in other species Species Number of Differences Compared to Humans Chimpanzee 0 Fruit fly 29 Horse 12 Pigeon 12 Rattlesnake 14 Red bread mold 48 Rhesus monkey 1 Snapping turtle 15 Tuna 21 Wheat 43 Use the diagram above to answer the following questions. 33.) Which organism are closer in relations to humans? Why? 34.) Which organism is least related to humans?