Biology Semester Exam Study Guide Name:__________________________________ Nature of Science and Experimental Design 1. Use the graph to the right to complete the following. a. Label the independent and dependent varioables b. Accurately describe how solution C reacted. pH 2. What is the purpose of the control? Time (sec.) 3. What is the difference between a constant and a control? 4. What is the difference between the independent variable and the dependent variable? 5. A student prepared two beakers with identical sprigs of an aquatic plant in each beaker. She placed one beaker in the shade and the other beaker beside a fluorescent lamp. She then systematically changed the distance of the beaker from the lamp. She counted bubbles given off by each sprig of water plant. a. What is the independent variable in the experiment? b. What is the dependent variable in the experiment? c. What are the bubbles made of that the student collected in the test tube? d. Why didn’t the student analyze the beaker placed in the dark? Cells & Cell Transport 1. Complete the table below for the macro-molecules listed: Name Building Block Molecule Carbohydrate Protein Lipid Nucleic Acids Basic Structure Function (general) 2. Compare and contrast the structure of prokaryotes and eukarytic cells and provide examples of both. 3. Which organelles would you find in plant cells but not animal cells? 4. List the cell structure that provides each function. a. Semi-fluid substance inside the cell. b. Packages molecules for shipping throughout the cell. c. Contains digestive enzymes. d. Storage sac. e. Involved in lipid production and transport within the cell. f. Site of protein synthesis. g. Stores DNA and acts as a control center of the cell. h. Provides energy for the cell. i. Regulates what enters and leaves the cell. j. Performs photosynthesis. k. Provides shape and structure in plant cells. l. Provides shape and structure for animal cells. m. Provides for transport and also a location for ribosomes. Membrane Structure & Function 1. Draw and label a cell membrane (include the following: a phospholipid, carrier protein, hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions of both a phospholipid and the membrane). 2. Explain why phospholipids form a bilayer? 3. Compare and contrast the processes of diffusion, osmosis, and facilitated diffusion. 4. a) What is the difference between active and passive transport? b) Give an example of each and explain how they relate to the concentration gradient. 5. Compare and contrast the facilitated diffusion and active transport. 6. Sketch a diagram of endocytosis and exocytosis and describe these processes. 7. Diagram a cell in each of the following types of solutions and explain what would happen to that cell in each situation. Hypotonic solution Isotonic solution Hypertonic solution Explanation Diagram 1.3 Energy & Enzymes 1. Label the following diagram and explain the role of ATP in cells. 2. What are the characteristics that all enzymes share? 3. What is an enzyme, and what role does it play in a chemical reaction? Be able to use these terms in your answer: Active site, substrate, rate of reaction 4. Sketch a graph that demonstrates the effect of… a. pH on enzyme activity b. temperature on enzyme activity 1.4 Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration 1. Compare and contrast each of the following by completing the chart: Chemical Equation **(Circle the reactants; and Box around the products)** Process Organelle Photosynthesis Cell Respiration 2. In terms of reactants and end products, describe the relationship of the two processes above, and their significance to life on Earth. 3. What is the difference between chlorophyll and chloroplasts? 4. Why do plants appear green? 5. List and describe three factors that would either promote or limit the rate of photosynthesis. 6. What is the purpose of cellular respiration? 7. Compare aerobic and anaerobic respiration (be specific about the use of oxygen, ATP produced, and differentiate between plants and animals). 1.5 Cell Cycle and Cell Division 1. What is a chromosome. 2. Draw a replicated chromosome and label the centromere and two sister chromatids. 3. A human’s body cell contains ______ number of chromosomes. After mitosis, its daughter cells produced will have ______ number of chromosomes. 4. Describe three reasons that cells would need to divide? 5. What is the purpose of mitosis? 6. List the phases of mitosis in order. 7. Compare and contrast cytokenesis in animal and plant cells. 8. How are normal cells different from cancerous cells (think cell cycle)? 9. What is the difference between a benign and malignant tumor? 2.1 DNA 1. Define a gene. 2 Draw and label a pair of nucleotides that are connected by a hydrogen bond. 3. Describe the shape and structure of a DNA molecule, including base pairing. 4. Describe the roles of the following people in the development of our understanding of the structure of DNA: a. Watson & Crick b. Wilkens & Franklin c. Chargaff 5. Describe the process of DNA replication, including the roles of helicase and polymerase. 6. Why is DNA replication considered semiconservative?