Nasreen Salih P2 Tissues P2 The main tissue types of the body and the role these play in two named organs of the body. Epithelial simple. A simple epithelial tissue covers the whole body it’s made up of cells packed together and ranged in one or more layers. Simple Cuboidal The cell of a cuboidal tissue looks like a cube. It has a large spherical nucleus placed in the middle of it, they are found in glands and the kidney and in the centre of a woman’s ovaries. It has a single layer of cubellile. Simple Columnar This is a uni-layered cell in humans. It lines the organs such as the stomach and big and small intestine it also lines the uterus they are put in to two categories non- ciliated and ciliated. The height is four times its width. Simple Squamous This is a single layer of flat cells in a square shape. They are in contact with the basement of the membrane of the epithelium. This type of epithelial is permeable (lets liquids and gases pass through, this is found in your mouth and blood vessels. They are found in capillaries also and other tissues where fast diffusion is necessary. Simple Ciliated Ciliated cells contain hair like structures beating in synchrony to move organic process or objects around. It has cilia on the surface and is not attached to another cell structure. They make mucus and help kill bacteria. Compound Simple compound This has a few layers of cells the top cells are flat and scaly and it can be keratinised or not keratinised. Keratinised compound epithelium This is found on the human skin. There is Keratinized and non keratinized the difference between the two is that keratinized covers the dry areas of the skin where as non keratinized covers moist areas such as the larynx, vagina. Nasreen Salih P2 Tissues Muscle Muscles need food and oxygen in order to work properly so if they are working hard but have not got enough food or oxygen then it causes pain and cramps. The strongest muscle is the ones on the side of your mouth that help you bite and chew food. Cardiac Muscle the heart is made of a muscle called the cardiac muscle unlike other muscles in the body the cardiac muscle never gets tiered its constantly working and never stops. It squeezes blood out of the heart and then relaxes it to fill it back with blood again in and this process continues and happens everyday until you are dead. The heart beats non stop this is achieved because of the cardiac Muscle. The cells of a cardiac muscle are Y shaped and wider and shorted than a skeletal muscle however they are stripped like skeletal muscles. The cardiac muscle is supplied by the nerves, but the nervous system only helps correct the speed and strength of its contractions. Unlike the other muscles in the body the cardiac is mostly dependant on oxygen that’s take in by the human to function. Skeletal muscle A skeletal muscle covers the skeleton which gives you your body shape. You have full control of what your skeletal muscles do this is knows as voluntary control. So all the movements made by you such as nodding you head or bending down is made by you moving your skeletal muscles. Your skeletal muscle keeps your joint in place and makes sure they are not dislocated. Some of your skeletal muscles are already attached to your face. 50 % of your body weight is made up of skeletal muscles they are arranged in layers over your bones. The ones that are closest to the inside of your body are called deep muscles and the ones nearest to the skin are called superficial muscles. Smooth muscle Smooth muscles are found in the stomach, big and small intestines, blood vessels and bladder. Smooth muscles are arranged in layers and have fibres in each layer which is running in to different directions. Unlike a skeletal muscles a smooth muscle is involuntary this means Nasreen Salih P2 Tissues you are not able to control your smooth muscle as they are controlled by the nervous system. They work automatically without you being aware. The smooth muscles help the walls of your intestines contract to move and push food through the body and helps the bladder expels urine from the body and for women in pushes babies out from the uterus during childbirth. There is also a smooth muscle in your eye called the pupillary sphincter muscle this shrinks the size of your pupils. Connective Blood this is the red liquid that circulates in the arteries and veins it carry’s oxygen and carbon dioxide from the tissues of the body. Bone this is the pieces of hard whitish tissue making up skeleton in humans. Bones protect the brain and other internal organs in the body. It allows the movement of limbs. The bone is hard as iron but cant be fractured or broken during accident than involve falling on ice car crash or falling of walls. It takes a number of weeks or months. Adipose this is used for the storage of fat. It protects and insulates our organs nerves and blood vessels. It protects us from heat loss and increase of heat. Areola this is tissue that surrounds the nipple it helps the nipple expand when breast feeding. To help prevent irritation the areola has sebaceous glands The areola is composed of areolar tissue that surrounds the nipple. To keep the nipple moisturized when breast feeding the areola contains Montgomery’s glands. Cartilage this is the firm, whitish, flexible tissue that’s found in various forms in the larynx in the external ear and in the articulating surface of joints supports softer than bone and other tissues. Nervous Neurons – this is a nerve cell. They are like other cells in the body but have many differences to other cells such as being able to transmit information through out the body which other cells can’t achieve. Neuroglia theses are cells that help the nervous system. They help support and protect neurons so they can do there job of transmitting impulses this is also known as action potentials.