Chapter One: Total Vocabulary 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. Social Sciences – Disciplines that study human social behavior or institutions and the functions of human society in a scientific matter. Sociology – The social science that studies human society and social behavior. Social Interaction – How people relate to one another and influence each other’s behavior. Social Phenomenon – Observable facts or events that involve human society. Psychology – The social science that studies behavior and mental processes. Sociological Perspective – A viewing of the behavior of groups in a systematic way. Sociological Imagination – The ability to see the connection between the larger world and our personal lives. Social Darwinism – The perspective that societies evolve towards stability and perfection and only the fittest societies survive over time. Verstehen – An attempt to understand the meanings that individuals attach to their actions. Theoretical Perspective – A “school of thought”, or a general set of assumptions about the nature of things. Functionalist Perspective – A theoretical perspective that involves viewing society as a set of interrelated parts that work together to make a stable social system. Dysfunction – A negative consequence an element has for the stability of the social system. Manifest function – An intended and recognized consequence of some element in society. Latent Function – An unintended and unrecognized consequence of some element in society. Conflict Perspective – A theoretical perspective that focuses on the forces in society that promote competition and change. Feminist Perspective – A theoretical perspective that involves viewing society as a system of gender inequality in which men dominate women. Interactionist Perspective – a theoretical perspective that focuses on how individuals interact with one another in society. Symbol – Anything that stands for something else and has shared meaning attached to it, such as language, gestures, sounds, objects, events, and elements to convey a particular meaning. Symbolic Interaction – Interaction among people that takes place through the use of symbols. Globalization – The development of economic, political, and social 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. relationships that stretch worldwide. Macrosociology – A level of analysis that involves the study of large scale systems of society as a whole, employed by the functionalist and conflict perspectives. Microsociology – The level of analysis that involves looking at smallscale settings and everyday interaction between group members. Employed by interactionist perpstcive. Scientific method – An objective, logical, systematic way of collecting empirical data and arriving at reasoned conclusions. Hypothesis – A statement that predicts the relationship of two or more variables. Variable – A characteristic that can vary from an individual, a group, or situation in a measurable way. Correlation – A change in one variable is regularly associated with the change in another variable. Survey – A collection of data on the attitudes and opinions from a large number of people. Sample – A small number of people drawn from a large population. Historical sample – Examining materials from the past that contain information of sociological interest. Content analysis – Counting the number of times a specific word, phrase, idea, event, symbol or other element appears in a given context. Participant Observation – Researchers become directly involved in the situation being worked on. Case study – An intensive analysis of a person, group, event or problem. Experiment – An event in which data is gathered under controlled conditions set by the researcher. Statistical Analysis – Analyzing data that has already been collected to determine the strength of a relationship that may exist between two or more variables.