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Communication Applications
Chapter 4
Discovering the Power of Oral Language
The Nature of Oral Language
 Defining Oral Language – language that is ______________ and ______________ rather
than written and read.
 Language has ___________
 Language is like a __________
 Each language system has its own set of agreed-upon conventions and rules
that __________________ the system and make it ________________ from
other languages.
 English, Spanish, Russian, French, etc…
 Speech choices _________________ appropriate for the specific situation or
context.
 Writing should be ________________ according to rules for the specific
form.
Characteristics of Oral Language
 Figure 4-1 page 102
 Meaning – We communicate with others based on the meanings we ______________ to
things around us and the ______________________ we use to communicate those
meanings.
 This is a ___________________ behavior.
 Vocabulary – all the _________________________ that make up a particular code or
language.
 Symbolic – always open to ___________________________
 Appropriateness – know how to communicate in different ________________ and
situations
 Don’t be ___________________ – know and use a ________________ vocabulary
 Structure – the way the different parts of a language are _________________________.
 Example – Prefixes & ____________________, also words can have different
meaning depending on the ______________________ of use. He fixed it.
 Grammar – the basic ____________________ and rules that regulate the use of a
language.
 Example – In Spanish, nouns come before ________________. In English, nouns
come after adjectives.
 Sound – the observable ___________________________ of oral language.
 The way you sound ____________________________ the messages you send.
 People are often ________________________________________ by the way they
talk.
Characteristics of Speech Sound
 Diction – the degree of ________________ and distinctness in a person’s speech. Pg
107-109
 Pronunciation – the standard set for the overall
_______________________________.
 Articulation – the act of _____________ and distinctly uttering the consonant
sounds of a _____________.
 Omission – omitting or leaving out a __________________ in a word.
 Addition – adding ____________________ consonant sounds to a word.
 Substitution – subbing one ________________ for another.
 Slurring – when consonant sounds ___________________________.
 Enunciation – the act of clearly and distinctly uttering the ________________
sounds of a word.
 Dialect – either a language that exists only in ________________ form, or a unique
combination of speech sounds that identify speech with a particular _______________ of
people.
 Regional – the sound of a particular ___________________.
 Ethnic and Cultural – using the characteristics of one language when
___________________ another language.
 Examples –1. During WWII, the _______________ language was only in oral form. 2.
The “southern drawl”. 3. Newscasters and actors can change how they pronounce words.
Putting Language Into Perspective
 Personal Implications of Oral Language
 Projecting Image – Improve your _________________________ and speech if you
want to be taken seriously.
 Conveying Attitudes – Do you talk _______________________ or negatively?
 Determining Success – Many employers value
______________________________ more than any other communication skills in
their employees.
 Cultural Implications of Oral Language
 Grimm’s Law –Jakob & Wilhelm Grimm studied the uses of _______________
language while compiling the well-known Grimm’s Fairy Tales.
Developing Skills for Power Language
 Characteristics of Power Language
 Clarity – easy to __________________________
 Courtesy and Tact – _____________________ communication
 Ownership of Thoughts and Feelings – speaker takes ____________________
 Inclusion of Others – including _______________________ in comm.
 Vividness and Imagery – help visualize _________________ ideas
 Appropriate Usage – takes _________________ into consideration
Understanding Levels of Usage
 Formal – there are strict standards _____________________________ its use.
 Technical – language associated with a particular profession, activity, or field of study.
aka - ______________________
 Standard – language used by the _________________________ of knowledgeable
communication within a specific language. aka – _____________________ speech
 Informal – type of language most often used in ____________________ situations and
close _________________________________ relationships.
 Colloquialisms – a term associated with a specific __________________ culture.
“till the cows come home”
 Slang – _________________________ language because it typically is used for
only a brief period of time by a _________________ group of people.
 Ungrammatical – language that does not use ___________________ standards of
grammar or mechanics
 Choose Your Speaking Style by using your ___________ and
__________________________.
Functions of Oral Language
 Expressing and Responding to Feelings – keeping your _________________l and
emphasizing with others will help you gain people’s ____________ and
________________.
 Giving and Seeking Information – asking ___________________ and providing
answers
 Controlling and Persuading
 Participating in Social Rituals – a communication ___________________________
that is frequently repeated in daily __________________________ interaction.
 Creating and Imaging – learn ___________________ words
Language to Avoid
 Denotation – a word’s _________________ description or meaning ---house
 Connotation – the _______________________ or feelings with which it is associated --home
 Avoid Troublesome Language – see pg 125
 Avoid Powerless Language
 Fillers – a word or phrase used to _____________________ hesitancy in speech,
like “um”, “like”, “__________________”
 Tags – a statement or question added to the _________________ of a statement to
__________________ approval
 Vague Wording – not _________________ in your communication