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A model of social change using four methods for describing systems
Old Thinking
New Thinking
Motivate people
Remove barriers
Who is wrong?
What is wrong?
Define responsibilities
Define procedures
Watch bottom line
Watch quality
Measure people
Measure systems
Define job
Define customer
Fix deviations
Reduce variability
“Obey orders”
“Improve things”
Individual rewards
Team rewards
Monetary incentives
Praise, recognition and gain sharing
How an emphasis on quality is changing management IDEAS in the US
In favor of change
Opposed to change
People new to the organization
Those whose jobs involve administering the
old system
Quality improvement consultants with new
Managers who believe the old system is
based on sound psychology
High-level managers who want to reduce costs
Workers who believe the current system is
inevitable and do not want to be bothered
Those who see some personal benefit
Middle managers who fear being laid off
GROUPS that favor and oppose the new way of managing
Old System
New System
Someone has an idea
Someone has an idea
The person tells his or her department head
The person takes the idea to a quality
improvement committee
The department head tries to be supportive
and tells the person to go ahead
The committee considers the idea and replies or
asks for clarification
The person must now convince all relevant
people to act on the idea, but the idea is a
personal interest, not a department initiative
If convinced, the committee and the entire
organization work to implement the idea
The person runs out of steam and becomes
discouraged. He or she learns to accept
things as they are
The person is recognized and publicly praised
New ideas come to be viewed negatively, as
a drain on personal energies
New ideas come to be viewed positively, as an
enhancement of the organization
Sequences of EVENTS in the old and new management systems
New products
or processes
Ideas put into
Customer satisfaction
yes +
Praise for new ideas
- no
Quality improvement
Ideas generated
Salaries and bonuses
How the old and new systems can be described
in terms of VARIABLES
Old Soviet System
New Russian System
Supply is more important than demand
Demand is more important than supply
Managers strive to control resources
Managers strive to increase demand
Barter is used to exchange excess resources for desired
goods. In the early transition economy barter was used
to avoid cash transactions and hence taxes
Tax rates should be low enough so individuals and
companies will pay them rather than avoid them
Workers wait for bosses to decide
A market economy requires that those who work in a
process continually strive to improve the process
A mistake leads to someone being blamed and
A mistake leads to the process being redesigned so the
error does not occur again
The “external environment” is a ministry planning
office and several suppliers
The “external environment” includes government
regulations, competing firms, independent labor unions,
consumers, and residents who live near factories
Managers do what is good for their boss
Managers do what is necessary to be successful in the
Employees do what they are told but do not exercise
Employees exercise initiative, innovate
Business is based on personal relations
Business is based on market and professional relations
Charismatic, personal leadership
Lead by organizing and by defining a vision and
mission for the organization
Authoritarian style of management
Creativity and flexibility in management
Treat employees as interchangeable parts
Treat employees as highly skilled knowledge workers
who know the company, its history and its capabilities
Pay workers as little as possible
Provide salaries and benefits that make employees
loyal, highly skilled and highly motivated
Family relationships in organizations
Business relationships in organizations
Maintain traditions
Deliberately create the desired organizational culture
IDEAS underlying the old and new management systems in Russia
In favor of change
Opposed to change
Younger generation (less than 30)
Older generation (older than 60)
Managers with new knowledge
Workers and managers who believe in the
old system
High level managers
Mid level managers
People who can find personal benefits in the Workers and managers who lose something
new system
because of the changes
GROUPS who favor and oppose management changes in Russia
Gorbachev becomes General Secretary of the USSR Communist Party
A series of reforms called glasnost and perestroika
Berlin Wall falls
Crisis of Soviet power in the republics
1991, Aug.
Attempted coup against Gorbachev. Yeltsin makes a short speech standing on a tank. People take to the streets to
defend democracy
Collapse of USSR and creation of a Confederation of Independent States
Price liberalization and hyperinflation. A majority of Russians lose their savings. Stratification of society
increases. Most of the population becomes impoverished
1993, Oct.
Tanks in Moscow shoot at anti-Yeltsin leaders in the Russian parliament
Development of parliamentary government in Russia. Four Russian Dumas
Production falls more than 50 percent. Economic links among republics of the former USSR are broken
Privatization, which was called by people "prihvatizatsiya." It is a play on words: "prihvatit'" is a popular
expression meaning "to steal”
The crisis of nonpayments. Workers were not being paid, so workers went on strike
1993, Dec –
First military campaign in Chechnya
Terrorist actions in Moscow and other Russian cities
Second election of Yeltsin. General Lebed signs Chechen peace treaty
1998, Aug.
Currency default. Second impoverishment of a majority of people in Russia
Second military campaign in Chechnya
Putin becomes President of Russia. Creation of “vertical power.” Presidential representatives are appointed for
seven Russian districts
First democratic election in Chechnya. Acceptance of Chechen Constitution.
economy. Party of Putin’s reforms wins parliamentary election
Economic growth in Russia
Some EVENTS during the transition in Russia
Reconstruction of Chechen
Management desire to
please customers
Use of ISO 9000
and TQM
for employees
Consumer demand
for better goods and
Autonomy of
Consumer spending
Competition for
skilled workers
VARIABLES show how the old system is changing into a new system
The interaction between ideas and society
1096 First Crusade
Interest in trade and in ancient learning
Marco Polo's trip to China
Science and technology stimulated by
desire to improve trade
Traders accumulate wealth. Nationstates develop and protect trade
The idea of progress. People strive to
produce more than mere subsistence
Industrial revolution in England
Adam Smith's The Wealth of Nations,
Capital accumulation, urbanization,
growing gap between rich and poor
Marx and Engels, The Communist
Manifesto, 1848
Revolutions in Europe. Demands
for more equal distribution of
Arguments for social reform in
industrializing countries
First World War and the Great
Keynes's theory justifying government
intervention in the economy
Second World War. World Bank
and IMF established.
Decolonialization of the Third
Friedman's monetary policy
Oil crisis in 1973 leads to
abandonment of gold standard and
fluctuating exchange rates
Environmental movement and futures
research movement, many conferences
on the 'world problematique'
Economic progress in Asia,
liberalization of communist regimes