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Transcript
STUDY GUIDE
Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
Figure 1-1
____
____
1. What type of graph is represented by Figure 1-1?
a. bar graph
b. line graph
c.
d.
circle graph
none of the above
2. What are the building blocks of all matter?
a. forces
b. atoms
c.
d.
magnetic fields
kinetic and potential energy
____
3. Neurons detecting stimuli in the skin and eyes are ______.
a. interneurons
c. sensory neurons
b. Motor neurons
d. synapses
____
4. What happens when the data in an investigation do not support the original hypothesis?
a. The scientist gives up and starts an investigation on a new topic.
b. The data must be incorrect and are thrown out.
c. The hypothesis is revised.
d. The data are altered so that they support the original hypothesis.
____
5. What is a hot, dry biome called?
a. desert
b. tundra
c.
d.
Coral reef
grassland
____
6. One kilometer equals 1000 meters. What does the prefix kilo- mean?
a. 1
c. 100
b. 10
d. 1000
____
7. Energy from hot magma is called
a. magnetic
b. geothermal
c.
d.
nuclear
electrical
_____ 8 Burning fossil fuels like natural gas and coal releases___
a. Nitrogen, oxygen and carbon compounds
b. Ultraviolet radiation
c. Sulfurous smog
d. Trapped air layers
____
9. Displacement vectors of 4 km south, 2 km north, 5 km south, and 5 km north combine to a total displacement of
a. 16 km north
c. 6 km south
b. 11 km west
d. 2 km south
____
10. Budding, fission, and regeneration are forms of __________.
a. mutations
b. cell cycles
c. sexual reproduction
d. asexual reproduction
____
11. Instantaneous speed is measured
a. at the starting point.
b. when the object reaches its destination.
c. at a particular instant.
d. over the duration of the trip.
____
12. A car traveled 60 km in 2 hours, 84 km in the next 1 hour, and then 68 km in 2 hours before reaching its destination.
What was the car’s average speed?
a. 212 km/h
c. 148 km/h
b. 42 km/h
d. 1060 km/h
____
13. Chromosomes are doubled during ____.
a. anaphase
b. metaphase
c.
d.
interphase
telophase
____
14. What is the speed of a bobsled whose distance-time graph indicates that it traveled 100 m in 25 s?
a. 4 m/s
c. 0.25 mph
b. 2500 m/s
d. 100 m/s
____
15. Any permanent change in a gene or chromosome.
a. fission
b. reproduction
c.
d.
replication
mutation
____
16. A coral reef and an oak hickory forest are examples of a (n) _____.
a. niche
c. population
b. habitat
d. ecosystem
____
17. An object that is accelerating may be
a. slowing down.
b. gaining speed.
c.
d.
changing direction.
all of the above
____
18. Meiosis produces ______.
a. Cells with diploid chromosome number
b. Cells with identical chromosomes
c. Sex cells
d. Zygote
____
19. The SI unit of force is the
a. joule.
b. kilogram.
c.
d.
meter.
newton.
20. When an unbalanced force acts on an object,
a. the object’s motion does not change.
b. the object accelerates.
c.
d.
the weight of the object decreases.
the inertia of the object increases.
____
____
21. When a pair of balanced forces acts on an object, the net force that results is
a. greater in size than both forces combined.
b. greater in size than one of the forces.
c. equal in size to one of the forces.
d. equal to zero.
____
22. The forces acting on a falling leaf are
a. air resistance and fluid friction.
b. gravity and air resistance.
c.
d.
gravity and static friction.
weight and rolling friction.
____
23. An open parachute increases air resistance of a falling sky diver by
a. decreasing the weight of the diver.
c. increasing the terminal velocity.
b. increasing surface area.
d. reducing fluid friction.
____
24. Color blindness results from an allele that is ______.
a. dominant.
c.
b. On Y chromosome
d.
____
25. What is biomass energy?
a. The chemical energy stored in living things
b. The electromagnetic energy stored in living things
c. The nuclear energy stored in living things
d. The thermal energy stored in living things
____
26. Punnet squares are used to ________.
a. dominate
b. predict
____
c.
d.
On X chromosome
Present only in females
assure
number
27. According to Newton’s second law of motion, the acceleration of an object equals the net force acting on the object
divided by the object’s
a. mass.
c. velocity.
b. momentum.
d. weight.
____
____
28. ______ are located on chromosomes.
a. DNA codes
b. pedigree
c.
d.
carbohydrates
zygote
29. The energy of motion is called
a. kinetic energy.
b. potential energy.
c.
d.
thermal energy.
work.
____
30. A small 20-kilogram canoe is floating downriver at a speed of 2 m/s. What is the canoe’s kinetic energy?
a. 22 J
c. 80 J
b. 40 J
d. 400 J
____
31. ________ is the death of all the members of a species.
a. evolution
b. extinction
c. gradualism
d. variation
____
32. Which of the following increases when an object becomes warmer?
a. chemical energy
b. elastic potential energy
c. nuclear energy
d. thermal energy
____
33. The energy stored in gasoline is
a. chemical energy.
b. electromagnetic energy.
c.
d.
mechanical energy.
nuclear energy.
____
34. Which of the following statements is true according to the law of conservation of energy?
a. Energy cannot be created.
b. Energy cannot be destroyed.
c. Energy can be converted from one form to another.
d. all of the above
____
35. The mechanical energy of an object equals its
a. chemical energy plus its nuclear energy.
b. kinetic energy plus its potential energy.
c. nuclear energy.
d. thermal energy.
Figure 15-1
____
36
The kinetic energy of the pendulum bob in Figure 15-1 increases the most between locations
a. A and B.
c. B and D.
b. A and C.
d. C and D.
____
37. Fossil fuels currently account for the majority of the world’s energy use because they are
a. distributed evenly throughout the world.
b. nonpolluting.
c. relatively inexpensive and readily available.
d. renewable energy resources.
____
38. A drawback of solar energy is that it
a. cannot be converted directly into electrical energy.
b. depends on the climate.
c. produces water pollution.
d. is not a renewable resource.
____
39 . The study of Earth’s composition, structure, and history is called
a. seismology.
c. chemistry.
b. physics.
d. geology.
____
40. Forces that shape Earth’s surface can be divided into
a. constructive and physical.
b. constructive and destructive.
c. chemical and destructive.
d. chemical and physical.
____
41. The three main layers of Earth’s interior are the
a. crust, core, and lithosphere.
b. crust, mantle, and core.
c. mantle, inner core, and outer core.
d. crust, mantle, and asthenosphere.
____
42. The hypothesis that the continents move slowly over Earth’s surface and once were joined into one supercontinent is
called
a. plate tectonics.
c. sea-floor spreading.
b. continental drift.
d. subduction.
____ 43.
The absolute age of an igneous rock found on a beach can be determined by using
a. radioactive isotopes.
c. the law of superposition.
b. fossils.
d. relative dating.
____
44. Geologists could use which of the following to compare the age of sedimentary rock layers in Bryce Canyon with
sedimentary rock layers in the Grand Canyon?
a. radioactive isotopes
c. relative dating
b. index fossils
d. all of the above
____
45. Which of the following climate changes may be affected by human activities?
a. ice age
c. global warming
b. El Niño
d. monsoon
46. ______is the careful use of resources to reduce damage to the environment.
a.
b.
Conservation
Recycling
c. Overgrazing
d. Deforestation
47. When humans recycle, they reduce the damage caused by _______.
a.
b.
Mining
Cutting trees
c. manufacturing
d. all of the above
48. A variation that helps an organism be better suited for its environment is a (n) __________.
a.
b.
Adaptation
Element
c. hypothesis
d. species
49. Change in inherited characteristics over time is called _________________.
a.
b.
Fossils
Species
c. camouflage
d. evolution
Figure 1-1
50 Figure 1-1 shows how a steel ball moved during an experiment. Average speed is calculated by dividing total distance by
time. Did the steel ball speed up, slow down, or remain at the same speed throughout the experiment?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Continues to slow down
Continues to speed up
Speeds up then slows down
No change