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Transcript
BIO 241 – EXAMINATION #2
TEST #_______
BlOOD VESSELS, HEMODYNAMICS, AND LYMPHATICS
READ THESE DIRECTIONS
BEFORE STARTING THE TEST,
1. Write your name and test number at the top of the scantron sheet.
2. Fill in the bubbles for your name (last, first) on the back of the scantron sheet.
3. Write your name on the front of the written answer sheet.
TURN IN YOUR SCANTRON SHEET AND WRITTEN ANSWER SHEET. YOU MAY KEEP THE REST OF THE
TEST. THE ANSWER KEY WILL BE POSTED ON MY WEBSITE.
YOU MUST TURN IN THE TEST 10 MINUTES BEFORE THE HOUR. THERE WILL BE NO EXCEPTIONS.
REMEMBER THE ACADEMIC HONOR CODE pledge you took below:
“As a student at The University of North Carolina Wilmington, I am committed to
honesty and truthfulness in academic inquiry and in the pursuit of knowledge.
I pledge to uphold and promote the UNCW Student Academic Honor Code.”
_________________________________________________________________________________
Each of the following questions or incomplete statements below is followed by suggested answers or completions.
Select the one BEST answer in each case and fill in the appropriate circle on the computer sheet. (2 points each)
1)
Compared to arteries, veins
A)
are more elastic.
B)
have more smooth muscle in their tunica media.
C)
have a smaller lumen.
D)
have thinner walls.
E)
hold their shape better when cut.
2)
Which of the following layers of a vessel contains collagen fibers with scattered bands of elastic fibers?
A)
tunica intima
B)
external elastic membrane
C)
tunica media
D)
internal elastic membrane
E)
tunica externa
3)
A sample of tissue displays many large tortuous spaces called sinusoids.
Blood moves slowly through these spaces. This tissue sample most likely came from the
A)
heart.
B)
lungs.
C)
liver.
D)
kidneys.
E)
skin.
4)
Blood moves forward through veins because of all of the following, except
A)
the pressure in the veins is lower than in the arteries.
B)
pumping by the smooth muscle in the wall of the vein.
C)
the respiratory pump.
D)
valves in the veins preventing the backward flow of blood.
E)
muscular compression.
5)
Which of the following is FALSE concerning capillary exchange?
A) A very common method of capillary exchange is simple diffusion.
B) The blood hydrostatic pressure promotes filtration of fluid out of the capillaries.
C) If the pressures that promote filtration are greater than the pressures that promote reabsorption, fluid will
move out of the capillary and into interstitial spaces.
D) A positive net filtration pressure results in reabsorption of fluid from interstitial spaces into a capillary.
E) The difference in osmotic pressure across a capillary wall is due primarily to plasma proteins.
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6)
Place the following in the order in which blood flows through them, starting with the heart:
1. heart
2. veins
3. capillaries
4. arterioles
5. distributing arteries
6. venules
7. elastic arteries
A) 1, 7, 4, 5, 3, 6, 2
B) 1, 5, 3, 4, 7, 6, 2
C) 1, 5, 7, 4, 6, 3, 2
D) 1, 7, 5, 4, 3, 6, 2
E) 1, 7, 5, 4, 3, 2, 6
7)
A patient with kidney trouble is unable to remove excess fluid from her blood. What effect will this disorder
have on her blood pressure (BP) and why?
A) increased BP, more fluid in the blood puts more hydrostatic pressure on the blood vessel walls
B) increased BP, more fluid in the blood forces the heart to contract more forcefully
C) increased BP, more fluid movement generates more friction and resistance
D) A and B are correct.
E) A, B and C are correct.
8)
The thoracic duct drains lymph from all of the following regions, except the
A)
left breast.
B)
right breast.
C)
left arm and shoulder.
D)
pelvic viscera.
E)
left side of neck.
9)
All of the following are true of the thymus gland, except that it
A)
activates B cells.
B)
reaches its greatest relative size during the second year of life.
C)
involutes after puberty.
D)
produces T cells.
E)
lies in the anterior mediastinum.
10)
Lymphatic capillaries are known for
A)
being the starting point of the lymphatic circulation.
B)
being the smallest lymphatic vessels.
C)
having larger diameters and looser walls than blood capillaries.
D)
shingle-like endothelial cells.
E)
all of the above
11)
Which of these statements about lymph flow in a node is false?
A)
lymph enters in an afferent lymphatic
B)
lymph first enters the subcapsular space
C)
lymph flows past lymphocytes
D)
lymph nodes contain 4-5 efferent lymphatics
E)
the efferent lymphatic exits at the hilum
12)
Lymph nodes do all of the following, except that they
A)
act as a site of T and B cell activation.
B)
monitor the contents of lymph.
C)
remove debris and pathogens from the lymph.
D)
accumulate cancer cells.
E)
remove excess nutrients from the lymph.
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13)
Place the following in the order that lymph would travel through them from the right thigh to the blood supply:
1. cysterna chili
2. thoracic (left lymphatic) duct
3. right lymphatic duct
4. right lumbar trunk
A) 4, 1, 2, but never 3
B) 4, 1, 3, but never 2
C) 3, 1, 2, but never 4
D) 3, 1, 4, but never 2
E) 1, 3, 2, but never 4
14)
Areas of the spleen that contain large aggregations of lymphocytes are known as
A)
Peyer patches.
B)
adenoids.
C)
white pulp.
D)
red pulp.
E)
lymph nodes.
15)
Lymphoid organs differ from lymphoid tissues in what way?
A)
They contain T lymphocytes and lymphoid tissues do not.
B)
They are found in the digestive tract and lymphoid tissues are found in the thorax.
C)
They are surrounded by a fibrous capsule and lymphoid tissues are not.
D)
They cannot produce antibodies, whereas lymphoid tissues can.
E)
both A and B
16)
Which of the following is NOT correct?
A) Immunocompetent cells are able to conduct immune responses when properly stimulated.
B) Immunocompetent cells include macrophages.
C) Immunocompetent cells have distinct plasma membrane proteins.
D) B cells become immunocompetent in the bone marrow.
E) T cells become immunocompetent in the thymus.
17)
Defense of the body against a particular pathogen is provided by
A)
nonspecific immunity.
B)
specific immunity.
C)
immunological surveillance.
D)
skin defenses.
E)
fever.
18)
In order for a lymphocyte to respond to an antigen, the antigen must
A)
be phagocytized by the lymphocyte.
B)
enter the cytoplasm of the lymphocyte.
C)
bind to the DNA of the lymphocyte.
D)
bind to specific receptors on the lymphocyte surface.
E)
depolarize the lymphocyte.
19)
Helper T cells do all of the following, except
A)
trigger clonal selection of B cells
B)
play a role in humoral immunity but not cellular immunity.
C)
enhance production of memory and cytotoxic T cells.
D)
attract and stimulate the activity of macrophages.
E)
enhance nonspecific defenses
20)
In passive immunization, the
A)
immune system attacks normal body cells.
B)
body is deliberately exposed to an antigen.
C)
body receives antibodies produced by other humans.
D)
body receives antibodies produced by an animal.
E)
either C or D
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21)
The following are steps in the cell-mediated immune response.
1. Several cycles of mitosis occur.
2. Antigen is engulfed and presented by a macrophage.
3. Cytotoxic T cells migrate to focus of infection.
4. T cells with specific receptors recognize the antigen.
5. T cells differentiate into cytotoxic T cells or T memory cells.
6. Cytotoxic T cells release perforin and/or lymphotoxin.
The correct sequence for these steps is
A)
4, 1, 5, 3, 6, 2.
B)
2, 4, 1, 5, 3, 6.
C)
1, 2, 4, 5, 3, 6.
D)
3, 2, 4, 1, 5, 6.
E)
3, 6, 4, 5, 1, 2.
22)
All of the following are true of the secondary response of humoral immunity, except that it
A)
depends on memory B cells.
B)
results in much higher antibody titers than in the primary response.
C)
results in much quicker rise in antibody titers.
D)
is also called the anamnestic response.
E)
weakens quickly because memory B cells only survive a few days.
Each of the following statements is to be compared quantitatively according to the following key. Fill in the
appropriate circle on the scantron sheet. (2 points each)
A.
B.
C.
If A is greater than B
If B is greater than A
If A and B are equal or nearly equal
23.
A. Blood pressure in the capillaries
B. Blood pressure in the Venae cavae
24.
A. Blood pressure with low levels of histamine
B. Blood pressure with high levels of histamine
25.
All other things being equal, systemic blood pressure during periods of:
A. Vasodilation
B. Vasoconstiction
26.
Water retention with the release of:
A. Atrial natriuretic peptide
B. Aldosterone
The pressure at the venous end of a capillary:
A. Blood colloid osmotic pressure
B. Blood hydrostatic presssure
28.
A. Velocity of blood flow in veins
B. Velocity of blood flow in capillaries
29.
Likelihood that some level of edema will occur with:
A. Increased plasma protein concentration
B. Increased Blood Hydrostatic Pressure
All other things being equal, resistance in vessel:
A. in a person with an increased hematocrit
B. in a person with normal hematocrit
Velocity of blood flow
A. in vessels with a large total cross sectional area
B. In vessels with a small total cross sectional area
Resistance in a vessel:
A. with a diameter of 10 microns
B. with a diameter of 1 mm
Protein content of:
A. Lymph
B. Interstitial fluid
27.
30.
31.
32.
33.
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END OF SCANTRON QUESTIONS
FILL-IN-THE-BLANK Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question on
your WRITTEN ANSWER SHEET! ( 1 pt each)
34) Blood flow is a function of pressure divided by _resistance______.
35) A __plasma_ cell develops from B lymphocytes and secretes antibodies.
36) The alternating contraction and relaxation of metarterioles and precapillary sphincters that regulations flow into
capillary beds is known as _vasomotion_________.
37) Capillaries that contain pores that let larger molecules and even blood cells leave the bloodstream are called
__fenestrated_________ capillaries.
38) When taking blood pressure measurements, the maximum arterial pressure during contraction of the left ventricle of
the heart is known as the _systolic___________ pressure.
39) _Starling’s____ law of the capillaries predicts that the amount of fluid lost from the capillaries to the tissues is
approximately equal to the amount of fluid gained by the capillaries from the tissues.
40) The lymph nodes and _spleen_________ are considered secondary lymphatic organs because lymphocytes migrate
to them and reside there.
41) The medullary cords of a lymph node contain __B______ lymphocytes and plasma cells.
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VESSEL IDENTIFICATION AND SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each
statement or answers the question on your WRITTEN ANSWER SHEET!
Use Figure above to answer the
arteries
Use Figure above to answer the following questions about
following questions about veins
42)
Identify the artery labeled "1."
46)
Identify the vein labeled "15."
43)
Identify the arteries labeled "9."
47)
Identify the vein labeled "9."
44)
Identify the artery labeled "6."
48)
Identify the vein labeled "3."
45)
Identify the artery labeled "10."
49)
The blood vessel that supplies blood to the unpaired abdominal organs including the liver, stomach, and spleen is
________.
50)
The vessel that directly connects to the liver and carries with it blood absorbed from the digestive organs is the
_________.
51)
The blood vessel that connects the femoral artery to the anterior tibial artery is the _________.
52)
The blood vessel that is the commonly used to measure blood pressure is the ________.
the
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WRITTEN ANSWER SHEET
Signature Personal Return _____________________
NAME ____________________
TEST NUMBER ________
Fill-in-the-Blank(1 pt each)
Vessel Identification
Vessel Short Answer
34. _resistance_________
42. _brachiocephalic_____
49. _celiac artery______________
35. _plasma_________
43. _common carotid____
50. _hepatic portal vein______________
36. _vasomotion____________
44. _common iliac______
51. _popliteal artery_____________
37. __fenestrated_______
45. _subclavian________
52. _brachial artery______________
38. ___systolic___________
46. _ulnar____________
39. __Starlings___________
47. _axillary____
40. __spleen_________
48._renal___
41. __B____________
53) In a freak accident, an overheated and dehydrated(loss of fluids only-no solutes) roofer falls off the roof and onto a
mirror that is being brought into a construction site. The mirror breaks and cuts several blood vessels, including the
femoral artery. Explain what will happen to the roofer’s NFP if he is overheated, dehydrated and hemorrhaging by using
increase or decrease for questions (2-4) below. 5 pts
1. What is the equation for NFP? _____________________________________________
2. How will the roofer’s dehydration condition affect his BCOP? ___________________________________________
3. How will the roofer’s hemorrhaging condition affect his BHP? ____________________________________________
4. How will the roofer’s overall physical condition affect is NFP? ___________________________________________
Answer: If the roofer overheated, he probably had already lost a significant volume of body fluid through perspiration as
his body tried to cool off. That loss would account for the dehydration. Loss of fluid without significant loss of solutes
causes the blood colloidal osmotic pressure (BCOP) to increase. The cuts the roofer suffered would cause hemorrhaging
and a loss of blood hydrostatic pressure (BHP). If the BHP goes down and the BCOP goes up, the net filtration pressure
(NFP) should decrease because NFP = (BHP + IFOP) – BCOP. [IFOP is the interstitial fluid osmotic pressure, which is so
much smaller than the BHP or BCOP that it usually doesn’t change NFP.]
Please see back of answer sheet for another short answer question!!!!!
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54. A wound overwhelms the clotting mechanism and leads to serious hemorrhage and drop in blood pressure.
Think about what compensatory mechanisms the autonomic nervous system and endocrine systems of the body
use to defend cardiac output and answer the questions below? (10 points)
A. Autonomic nervous system compensatory mechanisms.
1. In this situation, will the baroreceptors increase or decrease their input to the cardiovascular center?
___decrease__________
2. Which group or groups of neurons of the cardiovascular center in the medulla will be activated?
___cardio acceleratory and vasmotor__________________________________
3. Which part of the autonomic nervous system, parasympathetic or sympathetic increases its outflow?
___symp_______________
4. What are two factors that are increased by the autonomic division above to help maintain cardiac output
and ultimately increase blood pressure?
________heart rate_____________
___contractility__________________
5. What factor is increased by the autonomic nervous system to directly increase blood pressure?
__vasocontriction_____________________
B. Endocrine System Effects
1. List three hormones of the endocrine nervous system that would be release to help raise blood pressure?
__epinephrine/nor____
__ADH________ _____angiotensin II and aldosterone__
TOTAL POINTS _____100____
POINTS MISSED ____________
TEST SCORE
___________%
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