AP European history Jurewicz Ch. 28 WWII Context: Due to the economic and political turmoil during the Great Depression, totalitarian dictatorships threatened western democracy, erupting in the most devastating and brutal war of the twentieth century, World War II. The end of the war marked the demise of European hegemonic power, replaced by the USA in a power struggle against the USSR, known as the Cold War. CAUSES: - Versailles settlements American isolationism Ineffectual League of Nations Great Depression and political polarization Authoritarian aggression (Europe and Asia) Appeasement CHARACTERISTICS: - Spanish Civil War Italian aggression in Ethiopia Nazi aggression in East Europe War in Europe and Asia Battle front and home front mobilization Holocaust Atomic bombing EFFECTS: Shattered Europe Iron Curtain and the Spread of Communism 4th Republic in France Divided Germany United Nations Cold War - I. AGAIN THE ROAD TO WAR By the mid-1930s, Hitler had consolidated his power in Germany and blamed all of Germany’s problems on the Versailles peace settlements. A. Hitler’s Goals 1. Aryan race and unify all German Volk 2. Conquest of land for lebensraum (“living space” for Germans); primarily Poland and the Ukraine 3. Germany rearms: Hitler withdraws from the League (1933), creates a nonaggression pact with Poland (1934) and rearms (1935), bulding up the airforce and conscripting ½ million. 4. League of Nations fails to act when Japan invaded Manchuria (1931). a. The Lytton Report simply condemned the act, no more. Japan drops out of the League. b. Hitler gains confidence in rearming. B. C. D. D. E. c. GB, F and I sign the Stresa Front (1935) to maintain the status quo in Europe. d. GB violates the Stresa Front by allowing Germany 35% fleet of GB. Italy attacks Ethiopia, 1935 1. GB/F appease (ex. GB still allows I to use the Suez Canal). 2. Haile Selassie, PM of Ethiopia appeals to the League, which places sanctions, but not on the important resource, oil. 3. Rome-Berlin Axis 1936—an alientated Mussolini turns to Hitler. Remilitarized Rhineland, 1935—violates Versailles and Lacarno (1925) 1. League offers a feeble protest, thus emboldening Hitler. GB/F believe Hitler has limited goals. 2. France depends on the Maginot Line for protection. The Spanish Civil War 1936-1939 1. The monarchy collapse 1931 and the republic struggled for reform. 2. 1936—the Popular Front victory was challenged by General Francisco Franco and the Falangists (fascists) = Civil War. 3. Franco’s forces dominated the army and controlled the center of the country as opposed by the Republic and navy. a. G/I support Franco and use the war as a rehearsal arena. b. GB/F and the USA hesitate and only boycott the selling of weapons to either side. IMPACT!!—appeasement further emboldens Hitler. c. The USSR and volunteers (such as the American Lincoln Brigade) support the Republic. d. Japan joins the Axis Powers in the Anti-Comintern Pact. e. The town of Guernica is bombed, the subject of Picasso’s famous painting depicting the horrors of war. Austria and Czechoslovakia 1938 1. 1934 a coup by Austrian Nazis failed. 2. 1938 Hitler bullied PM Schuschnigg who calls a plebicite, but Hitler march troops in before the election, creating the German Anschluss, or “joining”. 3. Hitler next wanted the 3.5 million Germans living in the Sudetenland. a. GB, F and USSR commit to the Czechs. b. Hitler provokes a German Czech riot and the West appeases. Munich 1938—British PM Neville Chamberlain arranges the Munich Conference WITHOUT Cz or USSR. 1. Claiming “peace for our time”, Chamberlain leads the West to give over the Sudetenland. 2. By 1939 Hitler takes all of Czechoslovakia and GB/F prepare for war. 3. The West loses the USSR as an ally against Hitler. GB/F and USSR are mutually suspicious. The West doubted Russian competence, and GB/F did not want the USSR to enter Poland or Romania. F. The Nazi-Soviet Pact, August 1939—in an unprecedented move, Hitler negotiates with communist USSR to split Poland in exchange for neutrality. Hitler invades Poland on Sept. 1, 1939 and GB/F declare war Sept. 3. IMPACT!!—the western democracies’ policy of appeasement bought Hitler valuable time and allowed for his slow military build up. Hitler’s goals were pursued not by any calculated agenda, but pragmatically in response to the inactions of the West. Opportunities to confront and possibly stop a much weaker Germany were squandered. II. WORLD WAR II The war was truly global, highly technological and “total” in its civilian as well as military mobilization. A. German Conquest of Europe 1. Blitzkrieg = “lightening war” of air raids followed by tanks. Poland fell in 3 weeks. 2. USSR took east Poland, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia and Bessarabia (from Romania). Finland resisted. 3. Phony War or Sitzkrieg = after Hitler’s eastern invasion in the fall of 1939, all went quiet. 4. Spring 1940 Hitler took Denmark, Norway, Benelux and marched into Paris, June 22, 1940. The Maginot Line was no match for the German Panzers (tanks) and the left flank along the Belgian border was left exposed. 5. Dunkirk—a massive retreat boating F/GB forces to safety in England saved 100s K troops. 6. Vichy France—a collaborationist pro-Nazi French gov’t under Marshal Henri Philippe Pétain (Verdun 1914) was established in the south, east, and N. Africa, while the Nazis directly occupied Paris and the north/west access to the sea and English Channel. 7. Battle of Britain—Hitler wants GB to sign terms of German control of the continent, but new conservative PM Winston Churchill refuses. a. RAF (Royal Air Force) vs. Luftwaffe b. 15 K die, but RAF win 2:1 in downing German planes. Hitler abandons invasion. 8. Japan expanded in Asia. 9. 1940-1941 the USA is neutral, but pro-Allies in military aid. B. German Attack on Russia 1. Operation Barbarossa was planned for May 1941, but need to save Italy in Greece delayed invasion until late June 1941. a. General Erwin Rommel the “Desert Fox” gained N. Africa. b. Stalin was surprised = lost 2 K planes, 14 K tanks and 2.5 million soldiers. 2. FAILS! = Moscow not taken by winter = war of attrition. C. Hitler’s Plans for Europe 1. Third Reich for 1000 years (lasts 12). 2. Lebensraum = horror for Poles and Russians. 3. Assimilation = “acceptable” near-Aryans (i.e. Scandinavian, Dutch and some Ukrainians) re-educated. 4. Plunder = industry, food and forced labor. D. Japan and the USA 1. Japan in Indochina, China, and wanted Malay and Indonesia. USA slowly Japan with sanctions on oil. 2. Pearl Harbor bombed, Dec. 1941 by General Kideki Tojo = USA and GB declare war on Japan. Three days later G and I on USA. 3. The Tide Turns (20 countries vs. the Axis) a. 1942 Japan takes Guam, Wake Islands, Philippines, Hong Kong, Malay, Burma and Indonesia. b. 1942 Germans into USSR and Rommel into Egypt. c. Allies win in Asia (spring) and N. Africa (Nov. 1942). d. 1943 coup of Mussolini = Germans rescue, but weakens Axis powers. e. Stalingrad = Germans offense for Caspian oil, but FAIL = turning point of the war. f. Strategic bombing = USA successful by 1944. E. Defeat of Nazi Germany 1. D-Day, Normandy invasion, June 6, 1944 under Dwight D. Eisenhower, along with attacks on southern France. 2. Battle of the Bulge = once last German offensive in Belgium/Lux. = fails. 3. Capture of Berlin = Russians from the East; Hitler suicide April 30, 1945, and Nazis surrender May 8, 1945. F. Fall of the Japanese 1. USA Recaptures Pacific Islands = “island hopping” from Solomons, Mariana, Philippines, Iwo Jima and Okinawa. Faced kamikaze. 2. Atomic bombs on Hiroshima (Aug 6) and Nagasaki (Aug 9). 3. Emperor Hirohito surrenders August 14, 1945 and peace Sept. 2. 4. Controversies over the bomb = 1) threaten USSR and 2) save lives. IMPACT!! = Cost of War 1. 15 million military deaths and 40+ million civilians. 2. Cold War III. RACISM AND THE HOLOCAUST Hitler believed Slavs and Jews were Untermensch = sub-human. Heinrich Himmler (SS) sought 30 million Slavs for lebensraum, but only managed to kill 6 million. Plans to make Europe Judenrein, or “free of Jews” led to the horror of Endlösung, or “Final Solution” at the Wannsee Conference, 1942, thus leading to the Holocaust and murder of 6 million Jews. A. Destruction of Polish Jews = 10% of Poland. Polish Jews had suffered under Russian “Official Nationalism”. Lacked liberal improvements and ID’d by dress, language and culture. They were the urban poor with no union rights. B. Polish Anti-Semitism Between the Wars 1. General Pilduski included Jews, but after his death rights. 2. Jews lost jobs, education rights, civil service jobs and were resented for their work in medicine and law. 3. Despite discrimination, Jews assimilated with newspapers in Polish and voting; sadly they factionalized over modernization issues. C. Nazi Assault on Polish Jews 1. 100s K were forced to move, then ghettos, then camps. 2. Nazis stole property and 20% died in ghettos. 3. 1941 invasion of USSR = Jewish persecution. 4. ***Non-Jewish Poles also killed Jews (ex. Jedwabne), but ZEGOTA (Council for Aid to Jews in Occupied Poland) also saved Jews. 5. 1941-1944 = Auschwitz and Birkenau gas chambers = 90% murdered. Survivors went to Israel and only 1000s left today. D. Explanations of the Holocaust = 1. WHY? and 2. HOW? 1. Historical Christian Anti-Semitism + Social Darwinism = WHY. 2. Aggressive Nationalism + Utopian Ideals + technological weapons and propaganda = Totalitarian Dictatorships with mass murder capabilities = HOW. IMPACT!!—The world was shocked to discover the atrocities committed in the concentration camps. While strong controversy exists over dropping the atomic bomb, unlike the atrocities of Hitler or Stalin, it was clearly done for military purposes. The Holocaust challenged the world’s belief in humanity. IV. THE DOMESTIC FRONTS A. Germany: From Victory to Defeat 1. Blitzkrieg war was good the first 2 years. Invasion of the USSR changed everything. 2. Albert Speer directed the economy and 3x spending on the military. shortages and standard of living. a. Teens, women and the old = work; theaters closed and artists/entertainers conscripted. b. Women = motherhood and protection through sending sons to the front and working to support them at home. 3. Josef Goebbels = propaganda minister a. Radio and film morale and later exaggerated victories. b. Stiffened German resolve to the end. 4. Heavy destruction = whole new Germany after 1945 B. France: Defeat, Collaboration and Resistance 1. Vichy = conservative, RCC, family and nationalism. 2. General Charles de Gaulle = French National Committee of Liberation, or Free French, based in London and central Africa. a. Broadcast resistance and sabotage in Vichy and N. Africa. b. Less than 5% out of Nazi fear, but 1944 with Allied advance. 3. The 4th Republic was established in 1945, but was divided due to the wartime suffering. C. Great Britain: Organizing for Victory 1. 1940 Churchill was given emergency powers. 2. military, rations and economic controls. All collected metal for airplanes, increased factory hours, focused on savings and gov’t taxed to spending. 3. Luftwaffe air raids a. Children to the countryside (gov’t paid food and medical). b. 30 K die, but more die in Germany. c. Fuel, clothing, and food are scarce. 4. Propaganda and the BBC a. Churchill delivered radio speeches b. Families and soldiers listened to the same programs = unity. 5. Standard of living and health 6. 1945 Labour Party wins the election. D. The Soviet Union: “Great Patriotic War” 1. USSR fought defensively = more suffering than any other. 16 million die, ½ industry and Germans take food and force labor. 2. State Committee for Defense was highly centralized under Stalin who feared his own generals and a possible overthrow. 3. Confiscated radios and used loud speakers to war as a “Great Patriotic War”. 4. Tolstoy’s War and Peace on Napoleon’s invasion ; Eisenstein made Ivan the Terrible; Dimitri Shostakovich create Leningrad Symphony. 5. Stalin made peace with the Orthodox Church and worked to encourage partisans caught behind enemy advance to his influence. 6. WWII Stalin’s centralized authority and power. IMPACT!!—Other than Great Britain, the European countries were decimated by the war and suffered bombings, shortages and destruction. V. PREPARATIONS FOR PEACE—almost immediately, the Allied victors split into two camps: the Western Democracies lead by the USA vs. USSR = Cold War. A. The Atlantic Charter 1941 = Churchill met Franklin Delano Roosevelt on a ship off Newfoundland to work out principles of peace similar to Wilson’s 14 Points, including the United Nations. B. Tehran: A Second Front 1943 1. “The Big Three” = GB, USA and USSR agreed on the D-Day invasion plan. 2. The USSR joining against Japan when Hitler was defeated. 3. Stalin pushed to keep his rights to eastern Poland. When the USSR is near Warsaw, the Poles revolt. The Soviets go south to take Hungary, Romania and Bulgaria and let the Germans kill the Poles. 4. Invasion in northern France, not the Mediterranean = Russians in eastern Europe = Iron Curtain after the war. 5. Churchill and Stalin—Churchill negotiates Greece in exchange for Stalin’s control of Romania and Bulgaria with Yugoslavia and Hungary in the middle. FDR does not like working out “spheres”. 6. Germany—divided into 4 zones, demilitarized and de-Nazified. Stalin wants $20 billion in payments. 7. Eastern Europe—FDR insists on free elections; Stalin agrees, but later violates. C. Yalta, Feb, 1945—FDR wants the USSR in Japan and gives up islands. The United Nations is agreed on. D. Potsdam, July 1945 = President Harry Truman, PM Clement Atlee and Stalin. 1. Poland moved 100 miles west. 2. Council of Foreign Ministers = draft peace treaties, but infighting causes this to fall apart = Cold War. IMPACT!!—The USA (1951) and USSR (1956) sign separate treaties with Japan, demonstrating the fleeting peace amidst capitalist vs. communist rivalries immediately after the defeat of Germany and Japan. IN PERSPECTIVE—Some scholars argue WWII is a continuation of WWI, but others argue this is oversimplified. WWII is distinct insofar as USA isolationism and appeasement of GB and F prevented these countries from intervening in Hitler’s rise to power. The global war, beginning as early as Japan’s invasion of Manchuria, was a direct effort by authoritarian regimes to amass power. WWII had no treaties signed as the Cold War ensued. Former colonies and “Third World”/“developing countries” used the USA vs. USSR rivalry to bargain for assistance and freedom. Evident of this rivalry is the immediate assistance West Germany, Italy and Japan received to guarantee their democracy.