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```Chapter 6
Valuation of inventory (存貨的計價)
Inventory may include finished goods (製成品), work-in-progress (半製成品) or raw materials. (原材料)
6.2
Weighted average cost method (加權平均成本法)
Due to the firm bought goods at different prices at different times of the year, we need to find out the value of
the inventory at the end of the financial year. (由於公司在一年中的不同時期以不同的價格購買商品，我們

The weighted average cost method (WAVCO) is an inventory valuation method by which the cost of inventory
is based on the average cost of goods available for sale during the period. (根據加權平均成本法，存貨的成本

Weight average cost per unit =
Total cost of goods available for sale
The number of units in inventory
x 100%
We should note that the above calculations are based on the periodic inventory system (定期盤存制), which
is required by the HKDSE BAFS exam.
Example 1:
Given the following records of goods purchased and sold during the first year operation of a trading firm:
2015
Jan
Apr
Oct
Purchases
Unit
Unit cost
10
\$3,000
10
\$3,400
20
\$4,000
2015
May
Nov
Sales
Unit
Unit price
8
\$5,000
24
\$6,000
(a) Calculate the weighted average cost per unit.
(b) Calculate the cost of goods sold.
(c) Calculate the closing inventory.
(a) Weighted average cost per unit = (10 x \$3,000) + (10 x \$3,400) + (20 x \$4,000) / (10 + 10 + 20)
= \$144,000 / 40
= \$3,600
(b) The closing inventory = [(10 + 10 + 20) – (8 + 24)] x \$3,600
= 8 x \$3,600
= \$28,800
(c) The cost of goods sold = (8 + 24) x \$3,600
= \$115,200
71
6.3
Lower of cost and net realisable value (成本與變現淨值孰低法)
The lower of cost and net realisable value is an application of the prudence concept, which requires assets to
be valued at a lower figure to prevent assets or profits from being overstated. (成本與可變現淨值孰低法是稳

Net realisable value = Selling price of an item  Cost to complete and to sell the item
According to the lower of cost and net realizable value, the inventory whose net reliable value is lower than
cost should be valued at net realizable value. These inventory items should therefore be written down. (按照成

Example 2:
Suppose a firm has an inventory item that costs \$400. It is estimated that this item could be sold for \$300 after
deducting the necessary handling charges and carriage.
Since the net realisable value (\$300) is lower than the cost (\$400), this inventory item should be
valued at net realisable value \$300
6.4
Goods sent or received on a sale or return basis (銷售或退回方式)
When goods are sent on a sale or return basis and remain unsold on the date of inventory count (the
supplier's), these goods should be included in the supplier's inventory but excluded from the customer's
inventory. (當貨品以銷售或退回方式送到客戶手上而在客戶庫存盤點時尚未售出，這些貨物應包括在供應

Example 3:
D Cheung is a clock wholesaler. As at 31 March 2016, the closing inventory was valued at \$45,500.
Subsequent investigation of inventory records revealed that a batch of clock priced at \$4,200 had been sent to
a customer on a sale or return basis but remained unsold by 31 March 2016. These clock had not been
included in the valuation of closing inventory. A uniform mark-up of 50% was applied throughout the year
ended 31 March 2016.
Required:
Recalculate the correct inventory value as at 31 March 2016.
Cost of inventory sent on sale or return basis = \$4,200 / 150%
= \$2,800
Inventory as at 31 March 2016 = \$45,500 + \$2,800
= \$48,300
72
6.5
Deduction of closing inventory after the end of the reporting period (在會計期完結

Very often, the value of closing inventory can only be ascertained after the end of the reporting period. As a
result, adjustments are required to work out the actual value of closing inventory at the end of the reporting
period. (很多時候，期末存貨的價值只能在會計期末後確定。所以需要在會計期末調整期末存貨的實際價

Simple situation
Cost of Sales/Cost of goods sold
Opening inventory
Inventory
Purchases
Returns outwards
Cost of returns inwards
Closing inventory
Opening inventory + Purchases + Cost of returns inwards = Sales + Returns outwards + Closing inventory
Note: The opening inventory can also be determined by the above relationship. (期初存貨也可以由上述關係

Example 4:
Lion Ltd's financial year ends on 31 December. On 8 January 2016, the inventory valuation was completed and
the inventory at the year-end was valued at \$288,500. The following transactions took place between 1 January
2016 and 8 January 2016:
1
Goods were purchased for \$26,700.
2
Goods costing \$3,000 were returned to suppliers.
3
Goods were sold for \$38,000. All sold goods were marked up by 25%
4
Goods priced at \$3,500 were returned by customers.
Find the value of inventory as at 31 December 2015.
Computation of Inventory as at 31 December 2015
\$
Inventory as at 8 January 2016
Add Sales, 1-8 January 2016 [\$38,000 / (1 + 25%)]
Returns outwards, 1-8 January 2016
Less Purchases, 1-8 January 2016
Returns inwards 1-8 January 2016 [\$3,500 / (1 + 25%)]
Inventory as at 31 December 2015
73
\$
288,500
30,400
3,000
26,700
2,800
33,400
321,900
(29,500)
292,400
Complicated situation
Cost of sales
Opening inventory
Returns outwards
Purchases
Inventory
Loss of stock
Cost of returns inwards
Inventory undercast
Inventory overcast

(Accounting Principles and incomplete)

，

Due to unexpected circumstances, the year-end physical stocktaking of Mr Wong’s business was delayed from 31
December 2007 to 6 January 2008.

。 cost of stock as at the close of business on 6 January 2008 was \$38,420.
HKCEE
(B)
Closing inventory
(2008, 3)

。
After the physical count, an 現在是找回未扣減損壞貨品前的存貨
item costing \$100 was found to be worthless.
It was damaged by a warehouse
(i)
worker on 30 December 2007.
(ii) The purchases and sales during the period 1 to 6 January 2008 amounted to \$7,230 and \$6,880 respectively.
During this period, goods at the invoiced price of \$5,900 were returned by customers and there were no
returns outwards. It is the company’s policy to sell all goods at a 25% mark-up on cost.
(iii) Goods costing \$350 was drawn by Mr Wong on 4 January 2008 for his personal use. In addition, goods were
sold on 5 January 2008 to company staff for \$2,000, being 50% of the normal selling price. Both events had
not been recorded in the books.
(iv) Goods costing \$720 were sent to a customer on 20 December 2007 for inspection. The customer confirmed
his acceptance of the goods on 8 January 2008.
UnderREQUIRED:
the sales or return basis, the inventory of (iv) will be counted as the inventory in the company even
though
it werea statement
sent to a customer.
it will
to the
the statement
Prepare
to calculateHence,
the closing
stock
of inventory
as at 31 December 2007.
(B)
Statement to calculate the closing stock value of Mr Wong’s business as at 31 December 2007
\$
Closing stock value as at 6 January 2008
Add: (ii) Net sales after year end [(\$6,880  \$5,900) / (1 + 25%)]
(iii) Drawings after year end
(iii) Discounted sales to staff [(\$2,000 x 2 / (1 + 25%)]
(iv) Goods held by customer for inspection
Less:
(i) Damaged goods
(ii) Purchased after year end
Closing stock value as at 31 December 2007
784
350
3,200
720
100
7,230
74
\$
38,420
5,054
43,474
7,330
36,144
6.6
Normal vs. abnormal inventory loss (正常與非正常存貨損失)
Normal inventory loss (正常存貨損失)
A normal inventory loss refers to the loss of inventory that is expected in the ordinary course of business due to
factors such as physical deterioration and obsolescence. This kind of inventory loss will be treated as part of the
This is because the closing inventory is reduced already that means the cost of goods sold will
cost of goods sold for the period. (正常存貨損失是指企業在日常業務過程中出現的存貨損失，常見原因包
include the loss of inventory and hence no understate the cost of goods sold.

1. The loss is identified in the course of valuing inventory (進行存貨計價時發現損失)
The closing
inventory
is included
loss entries
of inventory
the(無須作出記帳分錄記錄虧損)
cost of goods sold will not include
There
is no need
to make
specific the
journal
for theand
loss.
the loss of inventory and hence understate the cost of goods sold. Hence we need to deducte
2. The loss is identified after inventory valuation (完成存貨計價後才發現損失)
the cost
of goods
sold
from the
profit
and loss
and inventory from stock account.
Dr
Profit
and loss
account
(cost
of goods
sold)
Cr Inventory account
Abnormal inventory loss (非正常存貨損失)
An abnormal inventory loss refers to the loss of inventory that is unexpected in the ordinary course of business
due to factors such as theft, fire and flooding. This kind of inventory loss will be treated as an expense for the
period. (非正常的存貨損失是指在企業的日常業務過程中出現的不可預期存貨損失。常見原因包括盜竊，

If the abnormal inventory loss is identified in the course of valuing inventory, the following entries will be made:
(如果企業一出現非正常的存貨損失，所需記帳如下:)
Dr Abnormal inventory loss account (非正常存貨損失悵户)
Cr Purchases account
If the abnormal inventory loss is ascertained after the valuation of year-end inventory, it should be recorded as
follows: (如果企業在完成期末存貨計價後才確定出現非正常的存貨損失，所需記帳如下:)
Dr Abnormal inventory loss account
Cr Profit and loss account (cost of goods sold)
If compensation is received from the firm's insurer, the following entries will be made: (如果企業已從或將會

Dr Cash/Bank/Insurer's account
Cr Abnormal inventory loss account
The net balance of the abnormal inventory loss account will be transferred to the profit and loss account at the
end of the accounting period: (非正常存貨損失悵户的淨額會在會計期末轉到損益悵户:)
Dr Profit and loss account
Cr Abnormal inventory loss account
Example 5:
Wilson Wong operates a trading business and has a year-end date of 31 December. On the evening of 5
November 2014, a fire broke out at the warehouse and destroyed part of inventory costing \$49,800. The
inventory was insured and the insurance company agreed on 10 December 2014 to make a compensation
payment by cheque equivalent to 60% of the loss. Prepare the journal entries for the inventory loss, insurance
compensation and transferring to profit and loss for the year ended 31 December 2014.
The Journal
Date
2014
Nov
Dec
Dec
Details
Dr
\$
5 Inventory loss
Purchases
10 Bank (49,800 x 60%)
Inventory loss
31 Profit and loss
Inventory loss (49,800 x 40%)
Cr
\$
49,800
49,800
29,880
29,880
19,920
19,920
75
Exhibit 6.4
Trial Balance as at 31 March 2015
Dr
\$
Sales
Purchases
Inventory
Wages and salaries
Rent
Sundry expenses
Office equipment
Accumulated depreciation: Office equipment
Allowance for doubtful accounts
Capital
Drawings
Bank
Cr
\$
2,164,000
1,460,000
310,000
172,000
180,000
23,000
400,000
100,000
92,800
105,500
3,500
402,000
60,000
77,200
2,775,000
2,775,000
1 Inventory as at 31 March 2015 was valued at \$280,000
2 An allowance of 5% was to be made for doubtful accounts.
3 Office equipment was to be depreciated at 25% using the straight-line method.
4 Some of the goods in the warehouse were destroyed by a fire on 1 March 2015. It was determined that
inventory loss amounted to \$80,000 and half of the loss would be covered by insurance. No entries were made
for this event.
Income Statement for the year ended 31 March 2015
\$
\$
The inventory loss must treat in cost of goods sold and expenses. If we just treat it in cost of goods
sold, the
Sales
2,164,000
of goods
soldsold:
will decrease and the gross profit and net profit will irrational increase. However, if we
LesscostCost
of goods
justOpening
treat it in
expense, the cost of goods sold will increase and the groos profit 310,000
and net profit will irrational
inventory
decrease.
1,460,000
1,770,000
Less Abnormal inventory loss
80,000
1,690,000
Less Closing inventory
(280,000)
(1,410,000)
Gross profit
754,000
Less Expenses:
Wages and salaries
172,000
Rent
180,000
Sundry expenses
23,000
Depreciation: Office equipment (\$400,000 x 25%)
100,000
1,140
Increase in allowance for doubtful accounts [(\$92,800 x 5%)  \$3,500]
40,000
(516,140)
Abnormal inventory loss (\$80,000  \$40,000)
Net loss
237,860
76
```
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