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Transcript
46. Pulu Keeling National Park
Information in the Ecological Character Description (ECD) (Hale 2009) and the latest version of the Ramsar Information Sheet (RIS) for the Pulu Keeling
National Park Ramsar site were reviewed to identify threats to the ecological character of the site. Terminology from these key Ramsar documents was
aligned to be consistent with the approach of the Ramsar Rolling Review (see Table 1 explanation notes).
The Ramsar Rolling Review uses the IUCN threat classification (reference) to standardise terminology across sites. All threat categories identified at the Pulu
Keeling National Park Ramsar site are listed in Table 2.
The critical components, processes and services (CPS) specified in the ECD are reproduced in Table 3. Threats which have the potential to change one or
more of the critical CPS within a 10 year timeframe are defined as imminent threats to the ecological character of the site (labelled IMM in Table 3). .
Consultation with site managers was undertaken to ensure the correct identification of current and imminent threats (see Table 1).
A stressor model is presented to illustrate the major pathways by which imminent threats effect the critical CPS. For clarity, the model does not attempt to
show non-imminent threats, weak linkages or feedbacks.
Table 1: Notes regarding alignment of terminology and additional information sourced from site managers to aid in the development of the sites
threat conceptual model.
Notes:
The ecosystem services identified in the ECD have been used, with the exception of provisioning and regulating services which were not
considered “critical”. An addition service (Supporting service 10 Threatened wetland species) was added to account for threatened frog and fish
species identified in the ECD.
Threats in the ECD were predominantly in categories that were similar to the IUCN categories.
Imminent threats were identified from the description of threats and impacts in the ECD and management plan.
The site is remote and reserved for conservation and as such is not subject to many anthropogenic impacts. All threats cited within the draft ECD
(and management plan) were considered imminent.
Table 2: Major categories and subcategories of current threats for the Ramsar site.
46. Pulu Keeling National Park
5. Biological Resource Use
5.1. Hunting & collecting terrestrial animals
5.4. Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources
8. Invasive & Other Problematic Species & Genes
8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species
11. Climate Change & Severe Weather
11.3. Temperature extremes
11.4. Storms & flooding
6. Human Intrusion & Disturbance
6.1. Recreation activities
8.1. Invasive nonnative/alien species
11.3. Temperature
extremes
11.4. Storms & flooding
6.1. Recreation activities
5.4. Fishing & harvesting
aquatic resources
Components (blue), Processes (green),
Services (yellow)
5.1. Hunting & collecting
terrestrial animals
Table 3: Matrix of all current threats against critical components, processes, and services showing those considered to be an imminent threat to
the ecological character of the Pulu Keeling National Park Ramsar site (components shaded blue, processes green, services yellow).
IMM
IMM
IMM
IMM
IMM
Seagrass
Marine Invertebrates
Fish
IMM
Marine Turtles
Waterbirds
Cultural service: Recreation
IMM
IMM
IMM
IMM
IMM
IMM
IMM
5.1. Hunting & collecting
terrestrial animals
5.4. Fishing & harvesting
aquatic resources
6.1. Recreation activities
8.1. Invasive nonnative/alien species
11.3. Temperature
extremes
11.4. Storms & flooding
Components (blue), Processes (green),
Services (yellow)
Supporting service: Physical habitat
IMM
IMM
IMM
IMM
IMM
IMM
Supporting service: Biodiversity
IMM
IMM
IMM
IMM
IMM
IMM
Supporting service: Threatened wetland
species, habitat and ecosystems
IMM
IMM
IMM
IMM
IMM
IMM
Supporting service: Priority wetland species
and ecosystems
IMM
IMM
IMM
IMM
IMM
IMM
IMM
IMM
Cultural service: Tourism
Cultural service: Science and education
Supporting service: Natural or near-natural
wetland ecosystems
IMM
Key to shapes used in conceptual model.
Reference:
Hale, J. 2009, Ecological Character Description of Pulu Keeling National Park Ramsar Site, A report to the Department of Environment Heritage Water and
the Arts.
46. Pulu Keeling National Park
8. Invasive & Other
Problematic Species &
Genes
8.1. Invasive non-native/alien
species
11. Climate Change & Severe
Weather
11.3. Temperature extremes
Yellow Crazy Ants
(Anoplolepis gracilipes)
Indicator: Presence of
super colonies
Increased
predation
(land
animals)
5. Biological Resource Use
5.1. Hunting & collecting
terrestrial animals
5.4. Fishing & harvesting
aquatic resources
Increased temperature
Indicator: Sea
temperature (reef)
Species
mortality
(Coral)
11. Climate Change & Severe
Weather
11.4. Storms & flooding
Direct species removal
(fish and seabirds)
Indicator: Number of
hunting / fishing trips
Physical disturbance
Indicator: Vegetation
extent; canopy cover
Decreased
population
(seabirds)
Indicator:
Seabird
numbers
Altered
community
composition
(removal of
grazing fish
species)
6. Human Intrusions &
Disturbance
6.1. Recreational activities
Decreased
vegetation
health
(terrestrial
vegetation)
Disruption
of breeding
(seabird
rookeries)
Altered food
webs
Component:
Invertebrates
Service: Biodiversity
Component:
Fish
Service: Biodiversity
Component:
Marine turtles
Service: Threatened
species
Component:
Waterbirds
Services: Physical
habitat, Threatened
species, Priority
species
Component:
Vegetation
Service: Physical
habitat, Threatened
species, Priority
species