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Religion is a cultural system of behaviors and practices, world views, sacred texts, holy places, ethics, and societal organization that relate humanity to an order of existence Numbers Christianity: 1.9 billion people Islam: 1.1 billion Hinduism: 800 million Buddhism: 325 million Judaism: 13 million Zoroastrianism is one of the world's oldest religions, with its leading characteristics such as messianism, heaven and hell, and free will influencing other religious systems, including Judaism, Christianity, and Islam Judaism is an ancient monotheistic religion, with the Torah as its foundational text and considered by religious Jews to be the expression of the covenantal relationship that God established with the Children of Israel The Jewish place of worship is called a Synagogue The religious leader of a Jewish community is called a Rabbi Unlike leaders in many other faiths, a rabbi is not a priest and has no special religious status The Jewish holy day, or Sabbath(Shabbat), starts at sunset on Friday and continues until sunset on Saturday During the Sabbath, Jews do not work(drive, cook, etc) Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ. It is the world's largest religion, with over 2.4 billion followers, or 33% of the global population, known as Christians. Christians believe that Jesus is the Son of God and the savior of humanity whose coming as the Messiah (the Christ) was prophesied in the Old Testament Christianity Based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ Originated in Palestine in the 1st century AD Believe that Jesus was the son of God who came and died for people’s sins and then rose so that all people could be saved Believe in one God(monotheistic) who created the universe and all things in it Christianity originally developed as a part of Judaism Islam is the religion articulated by the Quran, a text considered by its adherents to be the word of God (Allāh), and by the teachings and normative example Muhammad. It is the world's second-largest religion and the fastest-growing major religion in the world, with over 1.7 billion followers or 23% of the global population, known as Muslims Ten Commandments Important Days Ash Wednesday-Lent Palm Sunday Maundy Thursday Good Friday Easter Ascension Pentecost Advent Christmas Epiphany Judaism Is a monotheistic religion Judaism is the oldest and smallest of the world's five great religions Being a part of a Jewish community and living one's life according to Jewish law and traditions is very important. The fundamental beliefs of Judaism are: -There is a single, all-powerful God, who created the universe and everything in it. -God has a special relationship with the Jewish people due to covenant that God made with Moses on Mount Sinai, 3500 years ago. Rambam’s 13 Principles of Faith 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. G-d exists G-d is one and unique G-d is incorporeal G-d is eternal Prayer is to be directed to G-d alone and to no other The words of the prophets are true Moses’ prophecies are true, and Moses was the greatest of the prophets The Written Torah (first 5 books of the Bible) and Oral Torah were given to Moses There will be no other Torah G-d knows the thoughts and deeds of men G-d will reward the good and punish the wicked The Messiah will come The dead will be resurrected 613 Mitzvot Judaism 101: List of the 613 Mitzvot 7 Holy Days Rosh Hashanah-Jewish New Year Yom Kippur-A day of fasting and praying which occurs 10 days after the first day of Rosh Hashanah. The holiest day in the year Sukkot-8 day festival of thanksgiving Hanukkah-The Feast of Lights is an 8 day Feast of Dedication. It recalls the war fought by the Maccabees in the cause of religious freedom Purim-The Feast of Lots recalls the defeat by Queen Esther of the plan to slaughter all of the Persian Jews, circa 400 BC Pesa(Passover)-The 8 day festival recalls the exodus of the Israelites from slavery in Egypt circa 1300 BCE. A holiday meal, the Seder, is held at home Shavouth-Pentecost recalls God's revelation of the Torah to the Jewish people Menorah-It is a symbol of the nation of Israel and a mission to be "a light unto the nations. A Yarmulke is worn during prayer to shoe respect to G_d The Star of David is the international symbol of Judaism Flag of Israel has it Kosher Foods Foods are kosher when they meet all criteria that Jewish law applies to food Characteristics that make a food nonkosher: the mixture of meat and milk the use of cooking utensils which had previously been used for non-kosher food The type of animal it is Leviticus 11:3 says that Jews may eat all animals that have cloven hooves and chew their cud Leviticus 11:4 explicitly prohibited the consumption of animals that do not have these characteristics designating them "unclean to you." Six mammals are specifically not allowed: The camel The hyrax The hare The pig Whales and dolphins Kosher animals are as follows: Cows, goats, sheep, antelope, deer, giraffes, okapis and pronghorns Most fish(excluding shellfish, sharks, octupus, eels and squid) Chicken, duck, turkey Milk and cheese are kosher but cannot be eaten with meat or mixed with meat. Preparation the slaughter of animals is designed to minimize the pain— usually done by a slice across the throat this eliminates the practice of hunting for food unless it can be captured alive and ritually slaughtered. All blood and veins must be removed from meat(salting and broiling are common methods) Islam Islam is the world's second most followed religion It began around 1400 years ago in Arabia, but swiftly become a world faith, and now has around 1.2 billion people "Islam" is an Arabic word which means “surrendering oneself to the will of God” One will achieve peace and security by doing so A person surrenders to the will of Allah by living and thinking in the way Allah has instructed. Islam is more than a system of beliefs. The faith provides a social and legal system and governs things like family life, law and order, ethics, dress, and cleanliness, as well as religious ritual and observance—Islamic Republic Where is Islam practiced? The countries with the largest Islamic populations are not in the Middle East as most would think The largest are Indonesia (170 million), Pakistan (136 million), Bangladesh (105 million), and India (103 million) Islam's three holiest places, the cities of Mecca, Medina and Jerusalem, are all in the Middle East The present form of Islam began in Arabia in 622 AD It is based on the ministry of a man named Muhammad and on the words that Allah gave to the world through him Muhammad did not found Islam. Islam was created by Allah at the beginning of time, and in fact Muslims regard Adam as the first Muslim Muhammad was the final messenger through whom Allah revealed the faith to the world There had been earlier messengers, among them Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses and Jesus. 5 Pillars of Islam 1. Shahada(witness) is the Muslim profession of faith - "I witness that there is no god but Allah, and that Muhammad is the prophet of Allah" Muslims say this when they wake up in the morning and just before they go to sleep at night 2. Salat(daily prayer) is a prayer ritual performed 5 times a day by all Muslims over the age of 10 Between first light and sunrise After the sun has passed the middle of the sky Between mid-afternoon and sunset Between sunset and the last light of the day Between darkness and dawn 3. Sawm(fasting) is abstaining each day during Ramadan Sawm helps Muslims develop self-control, gain a better understanding of God's gifts and greater compassion towards the deprived. Ramadan is the holiest day for Islam. It marks when Muhammad had the Qur-an revealed to him Sawm is usually described as fasting, but it actually involves abstaining from all bodily pleasures between dawn and sunset Not only is food forbidden, but also things like smoking, chewing gum, negative thoughts and sexual activity 4. Zakat(almsgiving) is giving alms to the poor This is a compulsory gift of 2.5 % of one's savings each year Giving in this way is intended to free Muslims from the love of money It reminds them that everything they have really belongs to God. 4. Hajj is the pilgrimage to Mecca that all physically/financially able Muslims should make at least once in their life Mecca is the most holy place for Muslims Takes place during days 8-13 of the 12th month of the Islamic Lunar calendar They circle the Kaaba seven times on three occasions, say prayers, drink from a holy spring, walk to Mount Arafat to pray, feast, cast stones at three pillars(to fight Satan’s temptations), shave hair, run seven times between some hills The Kaaba Kaaba - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Other Info The Qur’an is the Islamic holy book The Qur'an is the actual word of God, and contains the fundamental beliefs of Islam Mecca, Medina and Jerusulem are holy cities According to tradition, the Qur'an was dictated to Muhammad Two major sects Sunni-920 million people(everywhere else) Shiite-120 million people(Iran) Comparing the Sunni and Shiite branches of Islam Islamic Law The Sharia outlines all of the laws(comes from the Koran) 5 Major Crimes: theft, highway robbery, intoxication, adultery and falsely accusing another of adultery Sharia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Food Laws Very similar laws to the Jewish kosher foods No alcohol, pork, blood, no pork fat products, scavenger animals Food must be prepared similarly to the Jews Slice to the jugular Drain blood 1) Christianity 2) Islam 3) Hinduism 4) Buddhism 5) Shenism 6) Taoism 7) Shinto 8) Falun Gong 9) Sikhism 10) Judaism Hinduism is a religion, or a way of life, found most notably in India and Nepal. Hinduism has been called the "oldest religion" in the world, and scholars regard Hinduism as a fusion or synthesis of various Indian cultures and traditions, with diverse roots and no founder Hinduism Hinduism includes a very wide range of beliefs and practices, so there aren't many things that are common to all Hindu groups Hinduism has no founder, no single book of faith, no creed, and no single source of authority Hinduism is very individualistic but a big part of a person’s everyday life There are 750 million Hindus in the world, mostly in India Śruti is Sanskrit for "that which is heard" and refers to the body of most authoritative, ancient religious texts comprising the central canon of Hinduism Smriti, literally "that which is remembered," refers to a body of Hindu texts considered fluid and freely rewritten by anyone in ancient and medieval Hindu tradition For many Hindus, religion is a matter of practice rather than of beliefs. It's more what you do than what you believe. Behind Hindu practice is the belief that every soul is trapped in a cycle of birth-deathrebirth(reincarnation). Every Hindu wants to escape from this cycle. Hindus aim to live in a way that will cause each of their lives to be better than the life before. Whether one is reborn into a better life, a worse life, or even to live as an animal, depends on Karma, which is the value of a soul's good and bad deeds. Buddhism is a religion and dharma that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on teachings attributed to the Buddha. Buddhism originated in India, from where it spread through much of Asia, whereafter it declined in India during the middle ages Hindu Beliefs All good things in life are gifts from God Finding out what your life’s calling is as Dharma suggest/requires is a very important goal Being a fair and decent person is very important Wealth, power and material belongings are good goals as long as they don’t become all important Moksha is the ultimate goal Theravāda (literally "school of the elder monks") is a branch of Buddhism that uses the Buddha's teaching preserved in the Pāli Canon as its doctrinal core. Theravada also includes a rich diversity of traditions and practices that have developed over its long history of interactions with varying cultures and religious communities. It is the dominant form of religion in Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, and Thailand, and is practiced by minority groups in Bangladesh, China, Nepal, and Vietnam Mahāyāna tradition is the largest major tradition of Buddhism. In the course of its history, Mahāyāna Buddhism spread from India to various other South, East and Southeast Asian countries such as Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, China, Taiwan, Mongolia, Korea, Japan, Vietnam, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore A lingua franca is an established language adopted by speakers in a particular place or context in order to facilitate communication among a linguistically diverse group. It is typically a second language shared by a group of speakers whose native tongues are mutually unintelligible. Unlike pidgin, which is a primitive language created for the purpose of communication between linguistically diverse speakers, a lingua franca is an already developed language that is adopted by speakers as a second language Dharma is a “cosmic natural law” that forms the basis for Hindu philosophies, beliefs and practices and holds everything together People that live in harmony with Dharma proceed more quickly toward Moksha Hindus ultimate aim is escape from the life cycle altogether and achieve the ultimate liberation—Moksha Hindus believe the universe doesn't have a beginning and an end. It's a cyclical pattern, so once it ends, it begins again. One attains Moksha when one has "overcome ignorance" and no longer desires anything at all(and yes, that includes the desire for Moksha) Sikhism is a monotheistic religion that originated in the Punjab region of the Indian Subcontinent during the 15th century. The fundamental beliefs of Sikhism include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, unity and equality of all humankind, engaging in selfless service, striving for social justice for the benefit and prosperity of all, and honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life Four Stages of Life 1. 2. 3. 4. Ages 12-24 you get educated and trained Ages 24-48 you get married, raise a family, make money, get involved in many things Ages 48-72 you become a mentor to a young person and start isolating themselves from the outside world At age 72 you end ties to the outside world and get rid of your worldly possessions. Prayer and devotion become very important. Mostly aimed at men and is not followed as much as it used to be Confucianism is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life. Confucianism developed from what was later called the Hundred Schools of Thought from the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius (551–479 BCE), who considered himself a retransmitter of the values of the Zhou dynasty golden age of several centuries before Hindu Gods One would think Hinduism is polytheistic. Most Hindus would say they worship one God. There is only one ultimate God, Brahman, but shows itself in many forms The gods Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva, for example, are different aspects of Brahman: Brahma reflects God's divine work of creating the universe Vishnu reflects God's work in keeping the universe in existence Shiva reflects God's work in destroying it Proselytism is the act of attempting to convert people to another religion. Proselytism, or religious conversion, is actively promoted in many Christian denominations Buddhism Founded in India around 500 BC by Siddhartha Guatama Became Buddha, the Enlightened One, when he was 29 He was trying to find the true meaning of life and eventually, through four trancelike stages of meditation, he was enlightened to the Buddhist was of life His main teachings was to eliminate human wants as they are the cause of suffering in the world Buddhism has no unique creed, no single authority and no single sacred book Buddhism focuses on each individual seeking to attain enlightenment Key beliefs and values are contained in "The Four Noble Truths“ 1. Life means suffering 2. The origin of suffering is attachment to worldly things 3. The end to suffering is attainable through eliminating physical wants/needs Eventually can achieve Nirvana(no wind) Nirvana means freedom from all worries and troubles 4. The path to the end suffering and achieve Nirvana is to follow the Eight Fold Path Sharia law is an Islamic code of conduct that regulates personal conduct and social affairs in a particular territory. It is enforced, to varying degrees, in Islamic states such as Saudi Arabia, Iran, Yemen, and Somalia, to name a few. Turkey, despite a majority Muslim population, has a secular government and does not subscribe to Sharia law Eight Fold Path 1. Right View 2. Right Intention Think and do the right things at all times 3. Right Speech To see and view things as they really are Attained true wisdom Do not lie, curse, slander, or gossip 4. Right Action Do not harm yourself or others, do not steal, and no sexual misconduct 5. Right Livelihood 6. Right Effort Give 100% effort in what you do 7. Right Mindfulness No jobs dealing in weapons, in living beings (including raising animals for slaughter as well as slave trade and prostitution), working in meat production and butchery, and selling alcohol and drugs Having the power to control our thought process and see the truth behind things 8. Right Concentration Ability to have deep concentration and ability to focus on wholesome thoughts and actions Assignment Try to follow Buddhist’s Eight Fold Path for 48 hours. Blog your results. Did you make it through? If so, was it tough? If not, what made it challenging?