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The Cold War
Do Now:
“The Cold War (September 2, 1945 - December 25, 1991) was the conflict between
the United States and its NATO allies - loosely described as the West - and the
former Soviet Union and its Warsaw Pact allies - loosely described as the Eastern
Bloc. A full-scale ‘east versus west’ war never actually broke out, hence the
metaphor of a "cold" war, rather than a ‘hot’ shooting war. Instead, the conflict
was fought primarily on economic, philosophic, cultural, social, and political levels.
It continued from the end of World War II until the breakup of the Soviet Union in
the early 1990s.”
What was the Cold War?
I. The End of World War II
A. The U.S. and the U.S.S.R. were the only militarily strong nations at
the end of war
1- Emerged as superpowers
B. But had different ideologies
1- U.S. favored democracy and free markets
2- U.S.S.R. favored communism
C. Soviets wanted to spread communism
1- Created communist regimes in Eastern Europe
a) Created an “Iron Curtain”
D. Containment
1- U.S.A. wanted to contain communism (stop the spread of
2- Marshall Plan
a) U.S. gave aid to rebuild Europe
E. Led to an arms race (race for weapons)
F. Led to conflicts
1- One of earliest conflicts in Germany after World War II
a) Divided into West and East Germany
b) Berlin divided
1. West Berlin in East Germany
2. Soviets blockaded West Berlin (1948-1949)
a. Blockaded roads and rails
b. Failed due to Allied airlift
1- What nations were the only militarily strong nations at the end of World
War II?
2- Define superpower.
3- How were the U.S.A. and the U.S.S.R. different?
4- Why did these differences cause conflict between the nations?
5- What did the Soviets want to do after World War II?
6- What did the Americans want to do after World War II?
7- Define containment.
8- Why did the Americans want to contain communism?
9- What was the Marshall Plan?
10- What was the arms race?
11- Why was a wall built in Berlin?
12- What was the Berlin Blockade?
After the Second World War,
the United States and the
Soviet Union were the only
militarily strong nations. As a
result, these nations became
the world’s superpowers.
However, these nations
differed greatly in terms of
ideology. The United States
supported democracy and free
markets. While the Soviets
advocated central planning or
a command economy. In
addition, the Soviets
encouraged the abolition of
private property and social
class. The Soviet Union
wanted to spread communism
to other nations while the
United States was committed
to containing or preventing
communism from spreading.
1: Why were the U.S.A. and U.S.S.R the
world’s superpowers after WWII?
2: How did the ideologies of these nations
3: Why were Americans particularly
frightened of the spread of communism?
4: What did the Soviets want during the Cold
5: Define the American policy of
6: What was the “Iron Curtain”?
7: What was the Marshall Plan?
8: How did the Marshall Plan help to stop the
spread of communism?
Of course, as the nations of
Western Europe were
economically destroyed after
World War II, communism
greatly appealed to some
Europeans. In addition, Soviet
troops had occupied Eastern
Europe and created
communist regimes friendly to
the Soviet Union.
To combat the spread of
communism and to address the
“Iron Curtain” that had
descended upon Eastern
Europe, the United States
created the Marshall Plan, a
plan to provide economic aid
to all nations of Europe. The
Soviets and their satellite
nations refused this aid.
1. The purpose of the Marshall Plan was
(1) restore Japanese economic
(2) provide military aid to Middle
Eastern allies
(3) assure nationalist success in the
Chinese civil war
(4) provide for economic recovery in
Western Europe
2. The Truman Doctrine, Korean War,
crisis in Guatemala, and Soviet invasion
of Afghanistan were all
(1) reasons for the Industrial Revolution
(2) examples of Japanese imperialism
(3) events of the Cold War
(4) causes of World War II
3. The political climate of the Cold War
caused the world’s two superpowers to
(1) cooperate in halting the spread of
(2) colonize Africa and Asia
(3) compete economically and militarily
(4) protect human rights
4. • Berlin airlift
• Cuban missile crisis
• Nuclear arms race
These events were part of an era known
as the
(1) Age of Imperialism
(2) Scientific Revolution
(3) Enlightenment
(4) Cold War
6. • Creation of NATO (North Atlantic
Treaty Organization) and the Warsaw
• Construction of the Berlin Wall
• Cuban missile crisis
These events are most closely associated
(1) World War I
(2) World War II
(3) the Cold War
(4) the Persian Gulf War
7. One similarity between the Korean
War and the Vietnam War is that both
wars were
(1) resolved through the diplomatic
efforts of the United Nations
(2) fought as a result of differing political
ideologies during the Cold War
(3) fought without foreign influence or
(4) caused by religious conflicts
8. Under communism in the former
Soviet Union, people were required to
(1) reject modern technology
(2) limit the size of their families
(3) honor their ancestors and religious
(4) put the interests of the state before
individual gain
9. “Korea Divided at 38th Parallel”
“Hungarian Revolution Crushed”
“Missile Sites Spotted in Cuba”
The events in these headlines
contributed to the
5. Kim Jong Il and Fidel Castro are 21st- (1) development of peacetime alliances
(2) collapse of the Soviet Union
leaders who believe in the ideas of
(3) rejection of imperialism by Western
(1) Karl Marx
(2) Adam Smith
(4) tensions between the superpowers
(3) Siddhartha Gautama
(4) Jean-Jacques Rousseau