Sayyid (also spelled ""Seyd"", ""Syed"", ""Sayed"", ""Sayyed"", ""Saiyid"", ""Seyed"" and ""Seyyed"") (pronounced [ˈsæjjɪd], or [ˈsæjjed], Arabic: سيد; meaning Mister) (plural Sadah Arabic: سادة, Sāda(h)) is an honorific title denoting males accepted as descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammad through his grandsons, Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali, sons of Muhammad's daughter Fatimah and his son-in-law Ali (Ali ibn Abi Talib). Conventionally, descent is patrilineal. However, in 1632 when an Ottoman court challenged a man wearing a sayyid's green turban he established that he was a sayyid on his mother's side, and this was accepted by the court.Daughters of sayyids are given the titles Sayyida, Alawiyah, or Sharifa. In some regions of the Islamic world, e.g., India, the descendants of Muhammad are given the title Amir or Mir, meaning ""commander"", ""general"", or ""prince"".In the Arab world, it is the equivalent of the English word ""liege lord"" or ""master"" when referring to a descendant of Muhammad, as in Sayyid Ali Sultan. This is the reason the word sidi (from the contracted form sayyidī, 'my liege') is used in the Arabic.In the early period, the Arabs used the term Sayyid and Sharif to denote descendants from both Hasan and Husayn. However, in the modern era, the term 'Sharif' (for female it is called Sharifah ) has been used to denote descendants from Hasan and the term 'Sayyid' (for female it is called Sayyidah) has been used to denote descendants from Husayn.Although reliable statistics are unavailable, conservative estimates put the number of Sayyids in the tens of millions.