Group 16: The Oxygen Family - Chemwiki
... Sulfur also exhibits a wide range of oxidation states, with values ranging from -2 to +6. It is often the central ion in a compound and can easily bond
with up to 6 atoms. In the presence of hydrogen it forms the compound hydrogen sulfide, H2S, a poisonous gas incapable of forming hydrogen bonds
Ch. 14 Test Review
noble gases representative
The periodic table organizes the elements into vertical ____________ and horizontal
____________ in order of increasing _________________. The table is constructed so that
elements that have similar che ...
Oxidation Number Rules
... c. Hydrogen usually has an oxidation number of +1 except in metallic hydrides
where it then has an oxidation number of -1
Examples: HCl, hydrogen is +1; NaH, hydrogen is -1.
d. The halogens, unless bonded to an element with a higher electronegativity,
have an oxidation number of -1.
Examples: NaCl, ...
Brown, Le May, and Bursten: Chapter 2
... divided by the ratio of these masses in the other compound
gives a ratio of small whole numbers.
E.g. There are three binary compounds that form between barium
and nitrogen. There was 4.9021 g , 9.8050 g and 14.7060 g of Ba
per 1.0000 g N in the three compounds. Show that these
compounds obey the la ...
... 2.7 An overview of the elements, by group
Goal: Get a feeling for elements’ chemical properties
Experiment # 9 Properties of Oxygen
... Just as with metals and metalloids, the product of the reaction of oxygen with a nonmetal is an
oxide. With nonmetals, the oxides formed are sometimes gaseous. For example, elemental
sulfur (S8) reacts with oxygen to form sulfur dioxide, a poisonous gas that can be used as a food
additive to sterili ...
p-Block Elements, Part 1
... e.g. Li2O = 2Li+ O2−
Peroxide Ion ⇒ O22− = −O – O−
e.g. Na2O2 = 2 Na+ −O – O −
Also, H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide)
Superoxide Ion ⇒ O2−
e.g. KO2 = K+ O2−
Can have positive oxidation states in combination
+ 2 in OF2
pblock - Chemistry Courses
... 2nd period: Only s and p orbitals are possible with n = 2
Therefore, the maximum number of bonds is 4
(single and/or double bonds)
Examples: CH4, NF4+, BH43rd (and higher periods): can use d-orbitals to make bonds
AP Chem II Instructor: Mr. Malasky Name Period ______ Due Date
... ____ 5. The value of ΔG˚ at 25˚C for the decomposition of gaseous sulfur dioxide to solid
elemental sulfur and gaseous oxygen,
SO2(g) → 2 S (s,rhombic) + O2(g) is __________ kJ/mol.
____ 6. The value of ΔG˚ at 25˚C for the formation of POCl3 from it ...
The Periodic Table
... This family includes a non-metal (carbon),
metalloids, and metals.
The element carbon is called the “basis of
life.” There is an entire branch of chemistry
devoted to carbon compounds called
The Periodic Table of Elements Mendeleev
... diatomic gas.
• Fluorine is a reactive, pale, yellow gas.
• Chlorine is a reactive green
- yellow gas
• Bromine is a red liquid (highly corrosive)
• Iodine is a purple crystalline solid that sublimes
... Elements that possess both metallic and
non-metallic properties. Found on both
sides of the zigzag line that divides the
metals from the non-metals.
Ex. silicon, boron, germanium, arsenic,
selenium, antimony, tellurium, polonium,
4-3 Families of Elements
... I. How Are Elements Classified?
a. Elements are classified into three groups
i. Most elements are metals--they are shiny solids that can be stretched and shaped.
ii. All nonmetals, except for hydrogen are found on the right side of the periodic table.
iii. Nonmetals that can sometimes conduct heat/e ...
Upon completion of Chapter 7, you should be able to
... Assign oxidation numbers to the each of the elements in # 1 and # 2.
Write names and formulas for molecular compounds using numerical prefixes
a. carbon tetraiodide
b. iodine trichloride
c. dinitrogen trioxide
Chapter 20 – The Representative Elements
... A complex series of reactions occur between NO2, O3, and unburned hydrocarbons in gasoline fumes to form
peroxyacylnitrates (PANs), a group of atmospheric pollutants responsible for the brown smog and potent nose
and eye irritants.
Oxo-acids and Oxo-anions of Nitrogen
Nitric acid (HNO3) and nitrous ...
Chapter 21 Chemistry of the Main
... Properties of the first element in each group
are usually more distinctive, while the rest
of the elements in a group have similar
The unusual properties of the first element
in a group can be explained on the basis of
its unusually small size, which arises
because the valence electrons ...
Name - TeacherWeb
... c. It is used as a standard for comparing the masses of atoms.
d. An atomic mass unit is defined as one twelfth the mass of a carbon-12 atom.
11. True or false? Most elements exist as a mixture of two or more isotopes. True
12. The mass of an atom of chlorine-37 is less than the mass of an atom of c ...
... • only 0.5-2.5% of SO2 is converted to SO3
• the time to reach the equilibrium depends of the catalytic effect of
the metal content (W, Mo, V, Cr, Ni, Fe oxides) in ash
Chapter 5 student
... Elements that form a bridge
between elements on the
left and right sides of the
... Only the noble gases exist as single
Two or more atoms combine together
to form a molecule
When atoms of different elements
combine they form molecular
Compounds have different properties from the elements that make
... substances are compounds. A compound is a substance made of atoms
of two or more different elements. Just as the 26 letters in the alphabet
can form thousands of words, the elements in the periodic table can
form millions of compounds.
The atoms of different elements are held together in compounds
The chalcogens (/ˈkælkədʒɨnz/) are the chemical elements in group 16 of the periodic table. This group is also known as the oxygen family. It consists of the elements oxygen (O), sulfur (S), selenium (Se), tellurium (Te), and the radioactive element polonium (Po). The synthetic element livermorium (Lv) is predicted to be a chalcogen as well. Often, oxygen is treated separately from the other chalcogens, sometimes even excluded from the scope of the term ""chalcogen"" altogether, due to its very different chemical behavior from sulfur, selenium, tellurium, and polonium. The word ""chalcogen"" is derived from a combination of the Greek word khalkόs (χαλκός) principally meaning copper (the term was also used for bronze/brass, any metal in the poetic sense, ore or coin), and the Latinised Greek word genēs, meaning born or produced.Sulfur has been known since antiquity, and oxygen was recognized as an element in the 18th century. Selenium, tellurium and polonium were discovered in the 19th century, and livermorium in 2000. All of the chalcogens have six valence electrons, leaving them two electrons short of a full outer shell. Their most common oxidation states are −2, +2, +4, and +6. They have relatively low atomic radii, especially the lighter ones.Lighter chalcogens are typically nontoxic in their elemental form, and are often critical to life, while the heavier chalcogens are typically toxic. All of the chalcogens have some role in biological functions, either as a nutrient or a toxin. The lighter chalcogens, such as oxygen and sulfur, are rarely toxic and usually helpful in their pure form. Selenium is an important nutrient but is also commonly toxic. Tellurium often has unpleasant effects (although some organisms can use it), and polonium is always extremely harmful, both in its chemical toxicity and its radioactivity.Sulfur has more than 20 allotropes, oxygen has nine, selenium has at least five, polonium has two, and only one crystal structure of tellurium has so far been discovered. There are numerous organic chalcogen compounds. Not counting oxygen, organic sulfur compounds are generally the most common, followed by organic selenium compounds and organic tellurium compounds. This trend also occurs with chalcogen pnictides and compounds containing chalcogens and carbon group elements.Oxygen is generally extracted from air and sulfur is extracted from oil and natural gas. Selenium and tellurium are produced as byproducts of copper refining. Polonium and livermorium are most available in particle accelerators. The primary use of elemental oxygen is in steelmaking. Sulfur is mostly converted into sulfuric acid, which is heavily used in the chemical industry. Selenium's most common application is glassmaking. Tellurium compounds are mostly used in optical disks, electronic devices, and solar cells. Some of polonium's applications are due to its radioactivity.