Pdf - Text of NPTEL IIT Video Lectures

... the total drag is this line. This line is the total drag and then also you can see that this depends upon the speed of the boat with respect the speed of the boat is increasing you can see that the drag effect is also increasing as plotted here. The various kinds of drag here we have seen and then ...

... the total drag is this line. This line is the total drag and then also you can see that this depends upon the speed of the boat with respect the speed of the boat is increasing you can see that the drag effect is also increasing as plotted here. The various kinds of drag here we have seen and then ...

DESIGN OF OFFSHORE PIPELINE(HE801)

... 3. Discuss about the relationship between ɸ , k and CL and the parameters defining the wave and pipline condition. 3. A desing wave with height, H = 4m, and period, T = 12 seconds acts on apipeline with a diameter, Dia = 2.0 m in a water depth 20 m. The pipeline oriented at an angle of 30 degree wit ...

... 3. Discuss about the relationship between ɸ , k and CL and the parameters defining the wave and pipline condition. 3. A desing wave with height, H = 4m, and period, T = 12 seconds acts on apipeline with a diameter, Dia = 2.0 m in a water depth 20 m. The pipeline oriented at an angle of 30 degree wit ...

Secondary wave lift degradation

... wave effect on lift degradation after rotation. However it’s difficult to isolate quantitatively the contribution of the secondary wave effect from all the other fluid effects. Perhaps the most accurate estimate is reported by Broeren et al.5 There is no visual evidence (photographic or videotape) o ...

... wave effect on lift degradation after rotation. However it’s difficult to isolate quantitatively the contribution of the secondary wave effect from all the other fluid effects. Perhaps the most accurate estimate is reported by Broeren et al.5 There is no visual evidence (photographic or videotape) o ...

drag en.wikipedia.pdf

... The reference area A is often defined as the area of the orthographic projection of the object — on a plane perpendicular to the direction of motion — e.g. for objects with a simple shape, such as a sphere, this is the cross sectional area. Sometimes different reference areas are given for the same ...

... The reference area A is often defined as the area of the orthographic projection of the object — on a plane perpendicular to the direction of motion — e.g. for objects with a simple shape, such as a sphere, this is the cross sectional area. Sometimes different reference areas are given for the same ...

Characterization of flow contributions to drag and lift of a circular

... A 2D numerical simulation of the flow around a circular cylinder is investigated during the onset of unsteadiness within the range of Reynolds numbers between 50 and 400. Using the recent formulation of Wu, Lu and Zhuang [J. Fluid Mech. 576, (2007)], the fluid force is successfully approximated by a ...

... A 2D numerical simulation of the flow around a circular cylinder is investigated during the onset of unsteadiness within the range of Reynolds numbers between 50 and 400. Using the recent formulation of Wu, Lu and Zhuang [J. Fluid Mech. 576, (2007)], the fluid force is successfully approximated by a ...

Drag and Drag Coefficients

... general the drag cannot be predicted. For spheres and other regular shapes at low fluid velocities, the flow patterns and drag forces can be estimated from published correlations or by numerical calculations using the general momentum balance equations. ...

... general the drag cannot be predicted. For spheres and other regular shapes at low fluid velocities, the flow patterns and drag forces can be estimated from published correlations or by numerical calculations using the general momentum balance equations. ...

Chapter 15 PPT lecture outline

... What is wave drag? (drag derived from the generation of waves at the interface between two different fluids, such as air and water) ...

... What is wave drag? (drag derived from the generation of waves at the interface between two different fluids, such as air and water) ...

An Aerodynamicist`s View of Lift, Bernoulli, and Newton

... The proper explanation of lift generation is a bit more complex, but we now have the background to appreciate it. Shown in Fig. 2 is a plot of an airfoil with a nearly flat bottom surface, the NACA 2412. Most single-engine Cessna aircraft have used this airfoil since the 1940s, which almost certainl ...

... The proper explanation of lift generation is a bit more complex, but we now have the background to appreciate it. Shown in Fig. 2 is a plot of an airfoil with a nearly flat bottom surface, the NACA 2412. Most single-engine Cessna aircraft have used this airfoil since the 1940s, which almost certainl ...

Basic Biomechanics, (5th edition) by Susan J. Hall, Ph.D.

... form drag? Form drag increases with: • the relative velocity of fluid flow • the magnitude of the pressure gradient between the front and rear ends of the body • the surface area of the body perpendicular to the fluid flow Basic Biomechanics, 6th edition By Susan J. Hall, Ph.D. ...

... form drag? Form drag increases with: • the relative velocity of fluid flow • the magnitude of the pressure gradient between the front and rear ends of the body • the surface area of the body perpendicular to the fluid flow Basic Biomechanics, 6th edition By Susan J. Hall, Ph.D. ...

Turbulence - meteonaa.esy.es

... direction (windshear) causes three dimensional eddies. – Near the tropopause. – Close to jet streams, particularly on the cold polar airmass side. – Jet stream CAT can be encountered above the tropopause boundary ...

... direction (windshear) causes three dimensional eddies. – Near the tropopause. – Close to jet streams, particularly on the cold polar airmass side. – Jet stream CAT can be encountered above the tropopause boundary ...

Wind and Waterspray

... is lost during its application), we can use conservation of energy in the form that says that the initial kinetic energy Ki minus the work WNC done by the nonconservative force equals the final kinetic energy Kf , or ...

... is lost during its application), we can use conservation of energy in the form that says that the initial kinetic energy Ki minus the work WNC done by the nonconservative force equals the final kinetic energy Kf , or ...

Mechanical Rate - U

... wake behind a moving object. The pressure difference between the fluid outside the wake and the fluid inside the wake causes pressure drag. ...

... wake behind a moving object. The pressure difference between the fluid outside the wake and the fluid inside the wake causes pressure drag. ...

The lift of a wing is proportional to the amount of air diverted down

... that split as they travel over the airfoil meet at the trailing edge. It is typically the case that the particle traveling over the upper surface will reach the trailing edge long before the one traveling over the bottom.) From Bernoulli's principle, the pressure on the upper surface where the flow ...

... that split as they travel over the airfoil meet at the trailing edge. It is typically the case that the particle traveling over the upper surface will reach the trailing edge long before the one traveling over the bottom.) From Bernoulli's principle, the pressure on the upper surface where the flow ...

Facilitator Guide Sheet - 4-H

... The pinwheel video may most appropriately be used after wind energy investigation has begun. It is most effective in describing similarities and differences between wind turbines, windmills, and pinwheels. After youth have had time to assemble a pinwheel and have begun thinking about how wind works ...

... The pinwheel video may most appropriately be used after wind energy investigation has begun. It is most effective in describing similarities and differences between wind turbines, windmills, and pinwheels. After youth have had time to assemble a pinwheel and have begun thinking about how wind works ...

UNITY****

... V : Apparent (wind) velocity [m/s] c:chord [m] : The dynamic viscosity of the fluid (=m/ 1.502x10−5 ) [m²/s] ...

... V : Apparent (wind) velocity [m/s] c:chord [m] : The dynamic viscosity of the fluid (=m/ 1.502x10−5 ) [m²/s] ...

Fluid Flow Concepts and Basic Control Volume Equations

... DRAG ON A GOLF BALL comes mainly from pressure drag. The only practical way of reducing pressure drag is to design the ball so that the point of separation moves back further on the ball. The golf ball's dimples increase the turbulence in the inertia of the boundary layer, increase the _______ bound ...

... DRAG ON A GOLF BALL comes mainly from pressure drag. The only practical way of reducing pressure drag is to design the ball so that the point of separation moves back further on the ball. The golf ball's dimples increase the turbulence in the inertia of the boundary layer, increase the _______ bound ...

WIND MEASURING AND HUMIDITY SENSORS.

... unequal, the warmer air tends to rise and flow over the colder, heavier air. Winds initiated in this way are usually greatly modified by earth’s rotation. ...

... unequal, the warmer air tends to rise and flow over the colder, heavier air. Winds initiated in this way are usually greatly modified by earth’s rotation. ...

Wind Turbine Powered Car Uses 3 Single Big C

... Fig. 7 and 8 represent the change in torque and the producing power for different type blades for the wind car, C-section blade at the diameter of C-section is equal 0.3m, double C-section with different diameter is 0.15 and o.3 m for each and big single C-section of diameter 1 m respectively. As sh ...

... Fig. 7 and 8 represent the change in torque and the producing power for different type blades for the wind car, C-section blade at the diameter of C-section is equal 0.3m, double C-section with different diameter is 0.15 and o.3 m for each and big single C-section of diameter 1 m respectively. As sh ...

Chapter 15: Human Movement in a Fluid Medium

... fluid affect the magnitude of fluid forces. • The fluid force that enables flotation is buoyancy. • Drag is a fluid force that acts in the direction of the free stream fluid flow. • Lift is a force that can be generated perpendicular to the freestream fluid flow by foil-shaped objects. ...

... fluid affect the magnitude of fluid forces. • The fluid force that enables flotation is buoyancy. • Drag is a fluid force that acts in the direction of the free stream fluid flow. • Lift is a force that can be generated perpendicular to the freestream fluid flow by foil-shaped objects. ...

Jet Stream

... • Referred to as wind effect, the speed and direction of the wind will alter the progress of any aircraft in flight. • Before each flight the pilot gets forecasted wind speed and direction to determine the estimated compass heading and ground speed of the aircraft. • Although an aircraft has its own ...

... • Referred to as wind effect, the speed and direction of the wind will alter the progress of any aircraft in flight. • Before each flight the pilot gets forecasted wind speed and direction to determine the estimated compass heading and ground speed of the aircraft. • Although an aircraft has its own ...

ME19b. SOLUTIONS. Jan. 5, 2010. Due Jan. 14

... perpendicular to the direction of the incident jet. 2. If the angle of attack, α, is varied while ρ, U , b, β and θ remain fixed, find the angle of attack at which the lift is zero. 3. If, on the other hand, the wedge is moved in a direction perpendicular to the incident jet while ρ, b, U , θ and α ...

... perpendicular to the direction of the incident jet. 2. If the angle of attack, α, is varied while ρ, U , b, β and θ remain fixed, find the angle of attack at which the lift is zero. 3. If, on the other hand, the wedge is moved in a direction perpendicular to the incident jet while ρ, b, U , θ and α ...

Resources - Real Science

... This wire is kept at high voltage by a solar-powered electron gun on board the spacecraft. A 20-km long tether, made of wire thinner than human hair, can fit into a small reel. But it provides a square kilometer of effective area when stretched out in space and charged up. In the Annales Geophysicae ...

... This wire is kept at high voltage by a solar-powered electron gun on board the spacecraft. A 20-km long tether, made of wire thinner than human hair, can fit into a small reel. But it provides a square kilometer of effective area when stretched out in space and charged up. In the Annales Geophysicae ...

Flow over immerse bodies

... When any body moves through a fluid, an interaction between the body and the fluid occurs; this effect can be described in terms of the forces at the fluidbody interface. This can be described in terms of the stresseswall shear stresses, due to viscous effects and normal stresses due to the pressure ...

... When any body moves through a fluid, an interaction between the body and the fluid occurs; this effect can be described in terms of the forces at the fluidbody interface. This can be described in terms of the stresseswall shear stresses, due to viscous effects and normal stresses due to the pressure ...

ATM 316 - Balanced flow

... Recall V is a nonnegative speed and R > 0 for CCW motion. Thus, Vg > V for cyclonic flow since the fVR term is positive in the Northern Hemisphere. Similarly, for CW motion, R < 0 and V > Vg . For the same pressure gradient, anticyclonic flow is supergeostrophic. That was the math, now let’s look a ...

... Recall V is a nonnegative speed and R > 0 for CCW motion. Thus, Vg > V for cyclonic flow since the fVR term is positive in the Northern Hemisphere. Similarly, for CW motion, R < 0 and V > Vg . For the same pressure gradient, anticyclonic flow is supergeostrophic. That was the math, now let’s look a ...

# Forces on sails

Forces on sails result from movement of air that interacts with sails and gives them motive power for sailing craft, including sailing ships, sailboats, windsurfers, ice boats, and sail-powered land vehicles. Similar principles in a rotating frame of reference apply to wind mill sails and wind turbine blades, which are also wind-driven. They are differentiated from forces on wings, and propellor blades, the actions of which are not adjusted to the wind. Kites also power sailing craft, but do not employ a mast to support the airfoil and are beyond the scope of this article.Forces on sails depend on wind speed and direction and the speed and direction of the craft. The direction that the craft is traveling with respect to the ""true wind"" (the wind direction and speed over the surface) is called the point of sail. The speed of the craft at a given point of sail contributes to the ""apparent wind""—the wind speed and direction as measured on the moving craft. The apparent wind on the sail creates a total aerodynamic force, which may be resolved into drag—the force component in the direction of the apparent wind—and lift—the force component normal (90°) to the apparent wind. Depending on the alignment of the sail with the apparent wind, lift or drag may be the predominant propulsive component.For apparent wind angles aligned with the entry point of the sail, the sail acts as an airfoil and lift is the predominant component of propulsion. For apparent wind angles behind the sail, drag is the predominant component of propulsion. For a given apparent wind speed, a sail can generate a higher lift force, when aligned with the apparent wind, than it can drag force with a following apparent wind. Because of limitations on speed through the water, displacement sailboats generally derive power from sails generating lift on points of sail that include close-hauled through broad reach (approximately 40° to 135° off the wind). Because of low friction over the surface and high speeds over the ice that create high apparent wind speeds for most points of sail, iceboats can derive power from lift further off the wind than displacement boats.Various mathematical models address lift and drag by taking into account the density of air, coefficients of lift and drag that result from the shape and area of the sail, and the speed and direction of the apparent wind, among other factors. This knowledge is applied to the design of sails in such a manner that sailors can adjust sails to the strength and direction of the apparent wind in order to provide motive power to sailing craft.