Metaphysical Dependence and Set Theory
... of axioms that govern the membership relation, and which describe a universe of mathematical
objects called sets. The mathematical theory of sets comprises those axioms and what logically
follows from them. This theory tells us what is true in the universe of sets. One might even take
this universe ...
ON GEACH ON GOOD
... value. They agree with Geach that there certainly are a number of
attributive notions of goodness, but when it comes to morals, those notions
are irrelevant, they think. What matters then is what is plainly better than
what. The alternative Geachean view seems to be that there are moral
questions of ...
A Survey of Mediaeval Philosophy, Version 2.0
... into WordPerfect codes. Many transferred nicely. Some of them are still in the text (anything
beginning with a backslash is a FancyFont code). Some I just erased without knowing what they
All of the files were cleaned up with one macro, and some of them have been further
doctored with addi ...
An Argument For A Neutral Free Logic
... suggestions that the speaker is lying, jesting, speaking sarcastically, or otherwise non-literally.
The word ‗really‘ does not change the truth value of a sentence to which it is added.
An argument that is given in some version by Thomas Hofweber, Steven Schiffer, and
Kit Fine, I call the triviality ...
The Incoherence of the Incoherence
... THE SECOND DISCUSSION: The Refutation of their Theory of the Incorruptibility of
the World and of Time and Motion
THE THIRD DISCUSSION: The demonstration of their confusion in saying that God
is the agent and the maker of the world and that the world in His product and act, and
the demonstration tha ...
... being F, then x necessarily has F at t. Because Spinoza is a
substance monist what he has to prove is that his only substance
God exists necessarily and that God has all its properties
Spinoza attributes necessary existence to God in 1p11. God exists
necessarily because God is a substan ...
The Principle of Four-Cornered Negation in Indian Philosophy P.T.
... the author of Madhyamikakarikas (first century B.C. or A.D.) did actually show that that
was so. The four Aryan Truths involve a belief in the doctrine of causation. But like
Bradley, in his Appearance and Reality, Nagarjuna showed that causation is selfcontradictory and so cannot be real. Thus, San ...
Frege and Hilbert on Consistency
... be deduced from it via the laws of logic. An axiom a is independent of a set S of
axioms just in case a cannot be deduced from S via the laws of logic. Since on
this account a is independent of S just in case the set S;~a is consistent, Hilbert
can (and does) demonstrate independence results via con ...
Notes on Epistemology
... thirdly, the example of scientists in other fields of inquiry teaches
us to regard with doubt any theory which has not yet been proved,
and at the start of our investigation the existence of the mind’s
power to acquire truth is a theory, and is, in fact, the chief problem
which epistemology has to s ...
Parsimony Arguments in Science and Philosophy
... than the SA hypothesis does. Consider Figure 1 once more. If we assume that the remote ancestors of
human beings and of monkeys lacked tail bones, then the CA hypothesis requires that there was at least
one change, from no tail to tail, in the lineages leading to the present. The SA hypothesis, on ...
Existential Semiotics and Cultural Psychology
... Completely new sign categories emerge in this tension between reality and being beyond it. We have to
make a new list of categories in the side of that once
done by Peirce. Such new signs so far discovered are
a.o. trans-signs, endo- and exo-signs, quasi-signs (or
as-if-signs), and pheno- and geno-s ...
penultimate draft - U
... Us: Well, it is certainly a nice picture, but I think you misidentify the source
of our confusion. Maybe ‘ontology’ is about a certain kind of structure, but as
we learned at Quine’s knee, it is also about what is ranged over by the existential
quantifier. As Zoltán Szabó puts it:
The standard view ...
Dharmakirti and Husserl on Negative Judgments
... the subject of concern at all. Only in contrast to the anticipation of Y, these
perceptions start to make sense in the way that they disappointed this anticipation.
So far, it seems that Husserl’s accounts of negation are too "negative", as he
characterizes it in terms of the "disappointment" of ant ...
... efficient cause, nevertheless have an end in the proper sense of the term. If he would admit
that they had only an end, however, it would be in an improper sense where end is
understood as the object of their most perfect operation. Or if he would grant them a
proper efficient cause, the latter woul ...
The Value Question in Metaphysics
... On some views, evaluative claims can be reduced to normative ones. But the distinction still holds: it would now be a distinction between what we have reason to
do within some world, and our reasons for attitudes towards that world. I discuss
such attitudes below.
A Study Guide to Descartes` Meditations
... until you have shown that the roots are secure. For
example, if you want to show that physics is secure, as
a science, you must show that its roots in metaphysics
are secure. If you want to have a theory of the material
world, you must first settle some questions about
metaphysics, that it, some gen ...
Glosses on Porphyry
... converge to the end of logic, that is to argumentation^ we separate the knowledge of none of
them from logic. Having examined these things let us begin the literal commentary.
Since it is necessary, He places first an introduction concerning the subject matter of which
he will write, in which he ...
A Beginner`s Guide to Descartes`s Meditations
... For those interested in Descartes’s philosophy in general, the Meditations
provides an ideal introduction to his thought in that it contains pretty much
all of his main philosophical opinions. The purpose of this book is therefore
to provide help to those studying the Meditations (at whatever level) ...
PLATO: THE SEVENTH LETTER_4
... it evidently differs in its nature from the real circle and from the aforementioned three. Of
all d these four, understanding approaches nearest in affinity and likeness to the fifth
entity, while the others are more remote from it.
The same doctrine holds good in regard to shapes and surfaces, bot ...
SOME MAIN PROBLEMS OF PHILOSOPHY
... is most amazing and most interesting about the views of many philosophers, is the way in which they go beyond or positively contradict
the views of Common Sense they profess to know that there are in
the Universe most important kinds of things, which Common Sense
does not profess to know of, and als ...
A reply on Spinoza`s behalf
... “whatever we desire and do of which we are the cause insofar as we have
the idea of God’ (E4p37s1). Because he simultaneously naturalizes divinity and divinizes nature in a single inﬁnitely expressive substance, he
eﬀectively reinterprets science itself as the highest form of religion.
A second ques ...
Ontology 101 - Centre for Logic and Information
... • One answer: theTower of Babel problem:
• Different groups of data- and knowledge-base system
designers have their own idiosyncratic terms and
concepts by means of which they build frameworks
for information representation
THE PROBLEMS OF PHILOSOPHY (London: Oxford University
... Berkeley, that matter is really nothing but a collection of ideas,
or they say, like Leibniz (1646-1716), that what appears as matter
is really a collection of more or less rudimentary minds.
But these philosophers, though they deny matter as opposed to
mind, nevertheless, in another sense, admit ma ...
Getting Priority Straight
... Priority theory opposes ontological radicals, who deny (MODESTY). Radicals reject (MODESTY) on the basis of a wide variety of disparate arguments.14
On the basis of one or another of these arguments, they think it would be better
if our ontology weren’t so crowded. For instance, some radicals sugges ...
Plato`s Apology of Socrates: Philosophy, Religion, and the Gods in
... things good and evil.”1 There were philosophers before Socrates, but they were not interested in
human affairs. Socrates himself began as such a philosopher, seeking “that wisdom, which they call
the investigation concerning nature,” to know “the causes of each thing, through what each thing
comes t ...
Existence is commonly held to be that which objectively persists independent of one's presence.Ontology is the philosophical study of the nature of being, existence or reality in general, as well as of the basic categories of being and their relations. Traditionally listed as a part of the major branch of philosophy known as metaphysics, ontology deals with questions concerning what entities exist or can be said to exist, (for instance: ""Does the stellar structure UDFj-39546284 exist?""), and how such entities can be grouped, related within a hierarchy, and subdivided according to similarities and differences. A lively debate continues about the existence of God.Epistemology studies criteria of truth, defining ""primary truths"" inherently accepted in the investigation of knowledge. The first is existence. It is inherent in every analysis. It is self-evident, a priori nature cannot be consistently doubted, since a person objecting to existence according to some standard of proof must implicitly accept the standard's existence as a premise.Materialism holds that the only thing that exists is matter, that all things are composed of material, and all phenomena (including consciousness) are the result of material interactions.Life is a characteristic that distinguishes objects that have self-sustaining biological processes from those that do not—either because such functions have ceased (death), or else because they lack such functions and are classified as ""inanimate"".