Effective Field Theory

... low-energy physics, where low is defined with respect to some energy scale Λ. They only take explicitly into account the relevant degrees of freedom, i.e. those states with m ≪ Λ, while the heavier excitations with M ≫ Λ are integrated out from the action. One gets in this way a string of nonrenorma ...

... low-energy physics, where low is defined with respect to some energy scale Λ. They only take explicitly into account the relevant degrees of freedom, i.e. those states with m ≪ Λ, while the heavier excitations with M ≫ Λ are integrated out from the action. One gets in this way a string of nonrenorma ...

Gravitational Lensing with a Large Deflection Angle as a Probe of

... black hole to loop around it several times before reaching the observer. We move on to discuss recent developments in the study of ``braneworld" models which present an interesting framework for the effect of extra dimensions on gravity. We also discuss several potential black hole metrics in the Ra ...

... black hole to loop around it several times before reaching the observer. We move on to discuss recent developments in the study of ``braneworld" models which present an interesting framework for the effect of extra dimensions on gravity. We also discuss several potential black hole metrics in the Ra ...

Renormalization group and the Planck scale

... background ﬁeld formalism is used by adding a non-propagating background ﬁeld ḡmn [21,30,32–34]. This way, the extended effective action Gk [gmn , ḡmn ] becomes gauge-invariant under the combined symmetry transformations of the physical and the background ﬁeld. A second beneﬁt of this is that the ...

... background ﬁeld formalism is used by adding a non-propagating background ﬁeld ḡmn [21,30,32–34]. This way, the extended effective action Gk [gmn , ḡmn ] becomes gauge-invariant under the combined symmetry transformations of the physical and the background ﬁeld. A second beneﬁt of this is that the ...

a 1 - SMU Physics

... Theoretical Advances In QCD a quark's effective mass depends on its momentum. The function describing this can be calculated and is depicted here. Numerical simulations of lattice QCD (data, at two different bare masses) have confirmed model predictions (solid curves) that the vast bulk of the const ...

... Theoretical Advances In QCD a quark's effective mass depends on its momentum. The function describing this can be calculated and is depicted here. Numerical simulations of lattice QCD (data, at two different bare masses) have confirmed model predictions (solid curves) that the vast bulk of the const ...

Classical Electromagnetism

... is the magnetic permeability of free space. As is well known, Equation (1.1) is equivalent to Coulomb’s law (for the electric fields generated by point charges), Equation (1.2) is equivalent to the statement that magnetic monopoles do not exist (which implies that magnetic field-lines can never begi ...

... is the magnetic permeability of free space. As is well known, Equation (1.1) is equivalent to Coulomb’s law (for the electric fields generated by point charges), Equation (1.2) is equivalent to the statement that magnetic monopoles do not exist (which implies that magnetic field-lines can never begi ...

Collected Scientific Papers - SN Bose National Centre for Basic

... implication of strict identity of photons? In what sense and to what extent can we think of light a s a collection of photons? All these questions were answered a t one stroke by Bose, who asked us to consider the many-photon states to be counted as states with equal probability. Photons were thus p ...

... implication of strict identity of photons? In what sense and to what extent can we think of light a s a collection of photons? All these questions were answered a t one stroke by Bose, who asked us to consider the many-photon states to be counted as states with equal probability. Photons were thus p ...

Widening the Axion Window via Kinetic and Stückelberg Mixings

... determined by the kinetic terms, Gij . The matrix f αβ encodes the coupling constants of and possible mixing among the Uð1Þ gauge symmetries with gauge potential Aα and field strength Fα . GA denotes the field strength of the strongly coupled non-Abelian gauge groups that generate instanton potentia ...

... determined by the kinetic terms, Gij . The matrix f αβ encodes the coupling constants of and possible mixing among the Uð1Þ gauge symmetries with gauge potential Aα and field strength Fα . GA denotes the field strength of the strongly coupled non-Abelian gauge groups that generate instanton potentia ...