Chapter 2 - Viscosity of Fluids

... • Thus, is a force divided by an area and can be measured in the units of N/m2 (Pa) or lb/ft2. ...

... • Thus, is a force divided by an area and can be measured in the units of N/m2 (Pa) or lb/ft2. ...

Natural convection in a mushy layer

... flow structure have been analysed previously by Roberts & Loper (1983) but they did not include the thermodynamic interactions between the flow and the growth of solid within the mushy layer; interactions that are fundamental to the overall behaviour of the system. A concurrent aim is to provide ana ...

... flow structure have been analysed previously by Roberts & Loper (1983) but they did not include the thermodynamic interactions between the flow and the growth of solid within the mushy layer; interactions that are fundamental to the overall behaviour of the system. A concurrent aim is to provide ana ...

ppt

... • Vorticity is a measure of the local rotation in a fluid • Planetary vorticity due to the rotoation of the earth • Relative vorticity due to the rotation of air relative to the surface, curvature vorticity and shear vorticity • Absolute vorticity = planetary vorticity + relative vorticity is conser ...

... • Vorticity is a measure of the local rotation in a fluid • Planetary vorticity due to the rotoation of the earth • Relative vorticity due to the rotation of air relative to the surface, curvature vorticity and shear vorticity • Absolute vorticity = planetary vorticity + relative vorticity is conser ...

Simulation of boundary slip on a liquid

... proved to be correct for macroscale flow. However, studies show that the fluid near the boundary can slip in the case of micro-scale flow 1, 2 and a clear boundary slip phenomenon can be observed at a smaller scale 3 . Compared with the inertial force and the electromagnetic force, the surface tensi ...

... proved to be correct for macroscale flow. However, studies show that the fluid near the boundary can slip in the case of micro-scale flow 1, 2 and a clear boundary slip phenomenon can be observed at a smaller scale 3 . Compared with the inertial force and the electromagnetic force, the surface tensi ...

Convective flow and heat transfer in a channel containing multiple

... array of heated obstacles attached to one wall. Three levels of Nusselt numbers are emphasized in this systematic analysis: local distributions along the obstacle exposed faces, mean values for individual faces, and overall obstacle mean values. This study details the effects of variations in the ob ...

... array of heated obstacles attached to one wall. Three levels of Nusselt numbers are emphasized in this systematic analysis: local distributions along the obstacle exposed faces, mean values for individual faces, and overall obstacle mean values. This study details the effects of variations in the ob ...

Chapter 9. Modeling Flows in Moving Zones

... accelerating reference frame. In this situation, the acceleration of the coordinate system is included in the equations of motion describing the flow. A common example of an accelerating reference frame in engineering applications is flow in rotating equipment. Many such flows can be modeled in a co ...

... accelerating reference frame. In this situation, the acceleration of the coordinate system is included in the equations of motion describing the flow. A common example of an accelerating reference frame in engineering applications is flow in rotating equipment. Many such flows can be modeled in a co ...

drag en.wikipedia.pdf

... For example, for human body ( ~ 0.6 m) ~ 70 m/s, for a small animal like a cat ( ~ 0.2 m) ~ 40 m/s, for a small bird ( ~ 0.05 m) ~ 20 m/s, for an insect ( ~ 0.01 m) ~ 9 m/s, for a fog droplet ( ~ 0.0001 m) ~ 0.9 m/s, for a pollen or bacteria ( ~ 0.00001 m) ~ 0.3 m/s and so on. Actual terminal veloci ...

... For example, for human body ( ~ 0.6 m) ~ 70 m/s, for a small animal like a cat ( ~ 0.2 m) ~ 40 m/s, for a small bird ( ~ 0.05 m) ~ 20 m/s, for an insect ( ~ 0.01 m) ~ 9 m/s, for a fog droplet ( ~ 0.0001 m) ~ 0.9 m/s, for a pollen or bacteria ( ~ 0.00001 m) ~ 0.3 m/s and so on. Actual terminal veloci ...

DISCRETE PARTICLE MODELING OF ENTRAINMENT FROM FLAT

... Paintal (1971a) measured transport at shear stresses that would generally be considered well below the ‘‘threshold of motion.’’ The reference shear stress method, possibly used by Shields (1936), avoids the problem of visual identification of the threshold by defining the reference shear stress to b ...

... Paintal (1971a) measured transport at shear stresses that would generally be considered well below the ‘‘threshold of motion.’’ The reference shear stress method, possibly used by Shields (1936), avoids the problem of visual identification of the threshold by defining the reference shear stress to b ...

PowerPoint Presentation - An Introduction to Differential Equations

... are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a ...

... are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a ...

Average velocity of solitary coarse grain in flows over smooth and

... moving grain to the boundary. With this simple function, it can be estimated that CD ...

... moving grain to the boundary. With this simple function, it can be estimated that CD ...

lagrangian evolution of hairpin structures in the temporal transition

... the vortex surface before significant topological changes in high-Reynolds-number flows. The vortex surface is a surface composed of vortex lines, which implies that the local vorticity vector is tangent at every point on the surface. Since the flow at the initial time t0 is a laminar Poiseuille flo ...

... the vortex surface before significant topological changes in high-Reynolds-number flows. The vortex surface is a surface composed of vortex lines, which implies that the local vorticity vector is tangent at every point on the surface. Since the flow at the initial time t0 is a laminar Poiseuille flo ...

Hydraulic/Shock-Jumps in Protoplanetary Disks

... the postshock overpressure. Note that we neglect self-gravity in this approximation because for many astrophysical situations q k 100. This relation has a behavior similar to equation (21); when M ¼ 1, h2 /h1 ¼ 1, and when M 31, h2 /h1 M. This does not mean that every fluid element is expected to ...

... the postshock overpressure. Note that we neglect self-gravity in this approximation because for many astrophysical situations q k 100. This relation has a behavior similar to equation (21); when M ¼ 1, h2 /h1 ¼ 1, and when M 31, h2 /h1 M. This does not mean that every fluid element is expected to ...

E-Modul

... characteristics -Dependency of viscosity on temperature -Non-Newtonian fluids -Examples -Laboratory exercise ...

... characteristics -Dependency of viscosity on temperature -Non-Newtonian fluids -Examples -Laboratory exercise ...

Fucus at open and complex coastlines in the Baltic Sea

... modelled from other map layers. The quality of the input data is crucial for the model performance. Nautical charts are most often used as depth source as well as source for calculation of slope. Fetch-models are often used to estimate wave exposure since wind blowing over a water surface builds up ...

... modelled from other map layers. The quality of the input data is crucial for the model performance. Nautical charts are most often used as depth source as well as source for calculation of slope. Fetch-models are often used to estimate wave exposure since wind blowing over a water surface builds up ...

Dumitrache_Carabineanu 125

... At high frequency, the flow are highly aperiodic with large wake deflections. Analysis of the flow shows that the high frequency of oscillation allows successive trailing edge vortices to have significant interaction with one another. 4.2 Power and Efficiency Because many of the simulations produce ...

... At high frequency, the flow are highly aperiodic with large wake deflections. Analysis of the flow shows that the high frequency of oscillation allows successive trailing edge vortices to have significant interaction with one another. 4.2 Power and Efficiency Because many of the simulations produce ...

Download PDF

... There are three different flow profiles that are defined by different Reynolds number regimes. Laminar flow, Reynolds number below 2000, is a smooth flow in which a fluid flows in parallel layers. It is usually characterized with low velocities, very little mixing, and sometimes high fluid viscosity ...

... There are three different flow profiles that are defined by different Reynolds number regimes. Laminar flow, Reynolds number below 2000, is a smooth flow in which a fluid flows in parallel layers. It is usually characterized with low velocities, very little mixing, and sometimes high fluid viscosity ...

Characterization of flow contributions to drag and lift of a circular

... where U is the upstream uniform velocity, d is the cylinder’s diameter, l its span (set equal to 1 in two dimensions) and ρ the fluid density. Dp depends on the pressure and takes into account the form drag and the induced drag. The friction drag Df depends on the viscous stress tensor and is known ...

... where U is the upstream uniform velocity, d is the cylinder’s diameter, l its span (set equal to 1 in two dimensions) and ρ the fluid density. Dp depends on the pressure and takes into account the form drag and the induced drag. The friction drag Df depends on the viscous stress tensor and is known ...

Hydraulic Properties: Permeability And PoROSITY

... a reaction front is identical to the mean total pressure. Thus the upper and lower halves of the reacted interval are subject to negative (dilational) and positive (compactive) effective pressures. If c>>m, the rocks remain rigid on the time scale of reaction until the vertical extent of the react ...

... a reaction front is identical to the mean total pressure. Thus the upper and lower halves of the reacted interval are subject to negative (dilational) and positive (compactive) effective pressures. If c>>m, the rocks remain rigid on the time scale of reaction until the vertical extent of the react ...

Equation Chapter 1 Section 1 The Mechanics of Metamorphic Fluid

... Prograde regional metamorphism is the wagging tail of a geodynamic dog. Unlike retrograde hydration and near surface processes, the rates and scales of prograde devolatilization are controlled by the energy input arising from the large-scale geodynamic process responsible for continental collision t ...

... Prograde regional metamorphism is the wagging tail of a geodynamic dog. Unlike retrograde hydration and near surface processes, the rates and scales of prograde devolatilization are controlled by the energy input arising from the large-scale geodynamic process responsible for continental collision t ...

Liquid Rope Coiling

... The origin of liquid-rope coiling effect is based on the un-isotropic nature of the viscous liquid internally, the viscosity plays a significant role to determine whether the phenomenon will be observed or not. The bucking phenomenon is the response of fluid to its impact on substrate and itself is ...

... The origin of liquid-rope coiling effect is based on the un-isotropic nature of the viscous liquid internally, the viscosity plays a significant role to determine whether the phenomenon will be observed or not. The bucking phenomenon is the response of fluid to its impact on substrate and itself is ...

Study of a Freely Falling Ellipse with a Variety of Aspect Ratios and

... ellipse glides with an angle of attack, α ≠ 0 , it leads to two high pressure regions, one below the ellipse close to the leading edge, and the other above the ellipse close to the trailing edge. These regions create a torque. The resulting torque rotates the ellipse as it begins to move broadside-o ...

... ellipse glides with an angle of attack, α ≠ 0 , it leads to two high pressure regions, one below the ellipse close to the leading edge, and the other above the ellipse close to the trailing edge. These regions create a torque. The resulting torque rotates the ellipse as it begins to move broadside-o ...

Separation in three-dimensional steady flows

... ¾ In general, a behaviour of the attachment type is not associated to a previous detachment. Furthermore, in three-dimensions the fluid that reattaches is distinct from the fluid that detached from the wall. ¾ Except in special cases, the term attachment should be preferred to reattachment. ...

... ¾ In general, a behaviour of the attachment type is not associated to a previous detachment. Furthermore, in three-dimensions the fluid that reattaches is distinct from the fluid that detached from the wall. ¾ Except in special cases, the term attachment should be preferred to reattachment. ...

The Conversion of Fluid Flow into Laminar Flow Device

... that the large opening communicates with the interior of said enclosure. (d) Reducing the turbulence of the fluid within said enclosure by progressively dividing the velocity components of the fluid flow into many smaller components, some of which cancel each other, thereby presenting a more uniform ...

... that the large opening communicates with the interior of said enclosure. (d) Reducing the turbulence of the fluid within said enclosure by progressively dividing the velocity components of the fluid flow into many smaller components, some of which cancel each other, thereby presenting a more uniform ...

Governing Equation

... A proper description of the annular flow with DRP and the calculation of friction losses are of specific interest to the natural gas and petroleum researchers and engineers. Calculations of friction factor are used to determine the parameters such as pressure drop in the piping system. For laminar ﬂ ...

... A proper description of the annular flow with DRP and the calculation of friction losses are of specific interest to the natural gas and petroleum researchers and engineers. Calculations of friction factor are used to determine the parameters such as pressure drop in the piping system. For laminar ﬂ ...

chapter 5 open-channel flow

... the work–energy theorem: the work done by the fluid pressure is equal to the change in kinetic energy of the flow. Remember that, in cases like this, if the change in kinetic energy is reversible a quantity called potential energy is defined as minus the work done, and then the sum of kinetic energy ...

... the work–energy theorem: the work done by the fluid pressure is equal to the change in kinetic energy of the flow. Remember that, in cases like this, if the change in kinetic energy is reversible a quantity called potential energy is defined as minus the work done, and then the sum of kinetic energy ...

# Airy wave theory

In fluid dynamics, Airy wave theory (often referred to as linear wave theory) gives a linearised description of the propagation of gravity waves on the surface of a homogeneous fluid layer. The theory assumes that the fluid layer has a uniform mean depth, and that the fluid flow is inviscid, incompressible and irrotational. This theory was first published, in correct form, by George Biddell Airy in the 19th century.Airy wave theory is often applied in ocean engineering and coastal engineering for the modelling of random sea states – giving a description of the wave kinematics and dynamics of high-enough accuracy for many purposes. Further, several second-order nonlinear properties of surface gravity waves, and their propagation, can be estimated from its results. Airy wave theory is also a good approximation for tsunami waves in the ocean, before they steepen near the coast.This linear theory is often used to get a quick and rough estimate of wave characteristics and their effects. This approximation is accurate for small ratios of the wave height to water depth (for waves in shallow water), and wave height to wavelength (for waves in deep water).