Mutation in the EGFP domain of LDL receptor
... Laboratory Medicine, Genetics, and Immunobiology, Yale University School
of Medicine, New Haven, Conn; and Isfahan University of Medical Sciences,
Mutation in the EGFP domain of LDL receptor-related protein 6
(LRP6R611C) is associated with hypercholesterolemia and early-onset
... •! Leading cause of death
•! High levels of cholesterol increase the chances
of developing these types of disease
•! These diseases are more prevalent as people
age, one reason is that the rate at which
cholesterol is metabolized, decreases with age
•! Females have lower levels of cholesterol
... Lipid catabolism where lipids become:
week 7_lipid - UniMAP Portal
... obtained by the ingestion of LDL by foam
cells- directly correlated with high risk for
coronary heart disease.
High plasma HDL- low risk for coronary
Liver cells are the only cells that possess
You may have heard the terms saturated and unsaturated in rela
... are single bonds, the lipid is a saturated fat. If one or more of these
bonds is a double bond, the lipid is an unsaturated fat. Most animal
fats are saturated, and most oils from plants are unsaturated. Diets
high in saturated fats have been linked to heart disease. Lipids in the
butter in the phot ...
Overview of Lipid Metabolism
... • Lipid catabolism where lipids become:
– Free fatty acids
• Glycerol can be converted to pyruvic acid which enters TCA
• Fatty Acids are degraded by beta oxidation, occurs in
mitochondria of liver, muscle and adipose tissue
I The THREE types of LIPIDS
... What effect do they have on heart disease risk?
3. High Density Lipoproteins (HDLs)
Mostly composed of
Carry cholesterol from _
Can remove cholesterol from plaque in arterial walls
What effect do they have on heart disease risk?
Why are LDLs referred to as “bad” cholesterol a ...
NATURE OF LIPIDS. Lipids have a hydrophobic nature because of
... Chylomicrons are triacylglycerols that are given a coat
composed of protein, phospholipids, and cholesterol esters.
a. Chylomicrons are transported in membrane-bound
vesicles to membranes of mucosal cells, where they are
released by exocytosis into the extracellular space. Once
chylomicrons are in t ...
Group A_lipid - UniMAP Portal
... Chylomicrons- large lipoproteins of extremely low
Transport dietary TAG and cholesteryl esters from
intestine to muscle and adipose tissues.
Very low density lipoproteins (VLDL)- synthesized in
the liver, transport lipids to tissues.
As VLDL are transported thru the body, they become
I The THREE types of LIPIDS
... • Actually a monounsaturated fatty acid (have one double bond), but act
MORE like a ______________ fatty acid, due to the different
configuration of hydrogen around the double bond.
• Can ______________ risk of heart disease.
• What impact to trans fats have on blood cholesterol levels?
Food Labels ...
... Once in blood, triglycerides in chylomicron are broken down by the enzyme,
lipoprotein lipase, which is located in blood vessel walls
Fatty acids and glycerol are released into bloodstream and taken up by body cells
Remnants of the chylomicron are brought to liver
VLDL – very low density lipop ...
the Cholesterol Information Leaflet
... found in fruits and vegetables, beans and oats. Aim to eat at least five portions of fruit and vegetables
There is some evidence that foods containing substances called plant sterols or plant stanols, such as
the brand Benecol or Flora pro.activ, in combination with a low fat diet, can hel ...
... Visceral fat or abdominal fat also known as organ fat or intraabdominal fat, is located inside the abdominal cavity,
packed in between organs (stomach, liver, intestines, kidneys,
... – Mono unsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) (1 double bond) –
• Oleic acid (18C)
– Poly unsaturated fatty acid (FUFA) (2 and more double bond)
• Linoleic acid (2 double bond) (18C)
• Linolenic acid (3 double bond) (18 C)
• Aracidonic acid (5 double bond) (20C)
• Called as essential fatty acid
Option B4 Lipids 2
... (the good, the bad and the ugly)
Cholesterol is transported around the
body by lipoproteins.
•Low density lipoproteins (LDL) range
•LDL transport cholesterol to the
arteries where it can build up and
cause cardiovascular disease
•LDL result from saturated fats,
especially lauric (C12), ...
THE LIPIDS: TRIGLYCERIDES, PHOSPHOLIPIDS, & STEROLS
... Transport Of Lipids
LDL- low density lipoprotein, the type of lipoprotein
derived from VLDLs as cells remove triglycerides
from them; Mainly composed of cholesterol.
Known as “bad” cholesterol because elevated
levels lead to heart disease.
HDL- high density lipoprotein, the type of
DIGESTION and ABSORPTION
... Fruits, grains, and vegetables are insignificant sources, unless
saturated fats are intentionally added to them during preparation.
... to mono- or polyunsaturated fats
to make them solid by reducing
the number of double bonds
–Cis vs. trans-fatty acids
Chapter 4 – The Lipids: Fats and Oils
... susceptible to spoilage; but in partial hydrogenation, trans-fatty acids, which may have an adverse effect
on health, are formed.
The Other Members of the Lipid Family: Phospholipids and Sterols
Phospholipids and a related molecule called lecithin are molecules consisting of fats (fatty acids)
Ch. 5 - LIPIDS
... o Examples: Vitamin E, Vitamin C, beta carotene, etc.
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is one of the five major groups of lipoproteins. These groups, from least dense to most dense, are: chylomicrons , very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL), LDL, and High Density Lipoprotein (HDL), all of them, particles far smaller than human cells. In nutrition, LDL is sometimes referred to as ""the bad cholesterol.""Lipoproteins transfer fats around the body in the water outside cells, can be sampled from blood and allow fats to be taken up by the cells of the body by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Lipoproteins are complex particles composed of multiple proteins which transport all fat molecules (lipids) around the body within the water outside cells. They are typically composed of 80-100 proteins/particle (organized by a single ApoB for LDL and the larger particles) and transporting about 3,000 to 6,000 fat molecules/particle. The fats carried include cholesterol, phospholipids, and triglycerides; amounts of each vary considerably. LDL particles pose a risk for cardiovascular disease when they invade the endothelium and become oxidized, since the oxidized forms are more easily retained by the proteoglycans. A complex set of biochemical reactions regulates the oxidation of LDL particles, chiefly stimulated by presence of necrotic cell debris and free radicals in the endothelium. Increasing concentrations of LDL particles are strongly associated with increasing amounts of atherosclerosis within the walls of arteries over time, eventually resulting in sudden plaque ruptures and triggering clots within the artery opening, or a narrowing or closing of the opening, i.e. cardiovascular disease, stroke, and other vascular disease complications.LDL particles (though far different from cholesterol per se) are sometimes referred to as bad cholesterol because they can transport their content of fat molecules into artery walls, attract macrophages, and thus drive atherosclerosis. In contrast, HDL particles (though far different from cholesterol per se) are often called good cholesterol or healthy cholesterol because they can remove fat molecules from macrophages in the wall of arteries.A hereditary form of high LDL is familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). High LDL is termed hyperlipoproteinemia type II (after the dated Fredrickson classification).