ORAL UPF/ TESI DOCT Nicotine addiction phenotypes in a BAC transgenic mouse
... chromosome 15, which human genetic studies have identified as a strong candidate for
nicotine dependence and smoking-related behaviours. This cluster codifies for the
alpha5, alpha3 and beta4 subunits of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs),
with low and restrictive expression pattern with ...
neuronal reward and decision signals: from theories to data
... we cannot investigate reward processing by looking at the
properties of reward receptors. Instead, rewards are defined
by the particular behavioral reactions they induce. Thus, to
understand reward function, we need to study behavior.
Behavior becomes the key tool for investigating reward
Behavioural Brain Research Ventral pallidum roles in reward and
... together with a later study that found that aphagia can be produced by lesions of the posterior ventral pallidum that do not invade
globus pallidus or lateral hypothalamus , conﬁrmed a role for
the ventral pallidum as a key component of the neural system for
eating and food ‘wanting’ .
The v ...
... European Union is between 20 and 25%, cannabis has been used within a 12 months
period by 5 to 10% of the population. For adolescents and young adults the prevalence of
cannabis use during the last 12 months is about double as high (EMCDDA 2003). The
frequency of use as well as patterns of use vary ...
Marijuana Use: Detrimental to Youth
... people before their first use of marijuana and again after long-term use (as much as 20+ years later)
thereby ruling out a pre-existing difference in IQ. This means the finding of a significant mental decline
among those who used marijuana heavily before age 18, even after they quit taking the drug, ...
understanding and addressing nicotine addiction
... unhealthy tobacco product use by engendering addiction to those products.3 However, research also
indicates that nicotine use increases the risk of other substance use and addiction and may on its own have
a number of adverse health consequences.4
Nicotine is a central nervous system stimulant and i ...
Psychopharmacology of conditioned reward
... stimuli and reward processes interact in a highly specific
manner; analyses of this phenomenon may provide valuable insight into the processes that underlie reward-related learning. The effects of dopaminergic agents with different mechanisms of action in this paradigm have revealed several interest ...
the neurobiology of nicotine addiction: bridging the gap from
... In particular, studies on the actions of nicotine on DA
pathways, specifically within the VTA, have provided
insights into how nicotine might modify signalling
through DA and non-DA VTA systems.
The VTA and its input and output pathways. The mammalian VTA is a midbrain region that has been implicate ...
Chapter 2 Reivew of Lierature
... administration of nicotine and include symptoms like wet dog shaking, tremors,
chews, teeth chattering, piloerection, gasps, shakes, yawns and palpebral ptosis
these signs depend upon the amount of nicotine intake and can be overcome after
treatment. Another method to produce withdrawal symptoms as ...
Nicotine injections into the ventral tegmental area increase
... the drug has been found to increase extracellular concentrations of DA [26,32]. However, several studies indicate
that stimulation of DA neurons at the somatodendritic,
rather than at the nerve terminal level is of major importance for the behavioral stimulation by nicotine. Thus. the
drug, either i ...
PDF - Journal of Neuroscience
... shown, however, that the nAChR antagonist methyllicaconitine
(MLA), at concentrations previously thought to be ␣7-specific,
was able to precipitate nicotine withdrawal in ␣7⫺/⫺ mice (Salas
et al., 2007). This indicates that the nAChR antagonists available
may not be as specific as previously believe ...
Midbrain Dopamine Neurons Encode a Quantitative Reward
... a lever press will be followed by 1 ml of juice, the delivery of 1 ml of juice should produce no reward prediction
error. Importantly, however, systems of this type do not
necessarily account for all of the behavior produced by
all animals under all circumstances. If an animal faces
an environment i ...
Dopamine: the rewarding years
... This is an age in which celebrity status appears to be a human
aim. Dopamine has certainly achieved that status in the
neurotransmitter world with a highly successful book (Awakenings by Oliver Sachs), which inspired a play by Harold
Pinter and was then converted to an equally compelling film in
Background - Harvard University
... the feeling of its going down the throat, or the rise in blood sugar subsequent to its
digestion that makes it a reward and has one come back for more? Which of these
events constitutes the primary rewarding effect, and do different objects draw their
rewarding effects from different events (Wise 20 ...
Morphine effects on monetary reward - DUO
... electrodes, Olds and Milner (1954) found evidence that electrical stimulation in ‘lower areas
of the brain’ caused rats to repeatedly self-stimulate for pleasure. Following these
experiments, numerous animal studies using methods such as single-cell-recordings and
intracranial stimulation combined w ...
K. Lutz, M. Widmer
... (dark orange arrow) and the anterior cingulate cortex (light orange arrow) provide
the main cortical input to the ventral striatum. Moreover, the ventral striatum
receives substantial dopaminergic input from the midbrain. On the other hand,
ventral striatum projections target the ventral pallidum an ...
Timing in reward and decision processes
... Most of these sustained prereward activations are prolonged
when reward delivery is delayed and terminate only after the
reward, suggesting a relationship to reward occurrence. Interestingly, in some striatal neurons the activation begins later
when reward delivery is predictably delayed (figure 2), ...
... forward theories. Along these lines, the effort made in this research field focuses on
comprehending the complex profile of a cocaine-addictive person at three levels:
biological, behavioural and social. Chronic cocaine use is related with medical,
neurological and neuropsychiatric complications, wh ...
Modulation of Behavior by Expected Reward Magnitude Depends
... behavioral responding. In a series of experiments, we sought
to characterize the role of dopamine in the dorsomedial
striatum in modulation of reward-directed responding by
visual cues. Different groups of rats subjected to infusion of
6-hydroxydopamine or vehicle into the posterior part of the
Introduction - Bowling Green State University
... electric brain self stimulation (EBSS), which demonstrated the existence of reward centers (or pathways) inside the
brain. In fact, as noted by Gallistel (1974), there are two main effects of rewarding brain stimulation. The first-one is
to energize behaviors before that any conditioning had taken p ...
Dynamic shaping of dopamine signals during probabilistic
... is well correlated with reward-prediction errors from formal reinforcement learning models, which feature teaching signals in the form of discrepancies between actual and expected reward outcomes. Additionally, in learning tasks where conditioned cues probabilistically predict rewards, dopamine neur ...
Dopamine D2 Receptor Priming Enhances Dopaminergic Response
... mechanisms of this effect, be the first study to analyze the roles of D1 and D2 receptors
in both males and females in this phenomenon, that may lead to further understanding
the significant health problem of substance abuse in psychosis.
Dopamine D2 Receptor Priming Model
Kostrzewa and colleagues h ...
Addiction is a state characterized by compulsive engagement in rewarding stimuli, despite adverse consequences. It can be thought of as a disease or biological process leading to such behaviors. The two properties that characterize all addictive stimuli are that they are reinforcing (i.e., they increase the likelihood that a person will seek repeated exposure to them) and intrinsically rewarding (i.e., something perceived as being positive or desirable).Addiction is a disorder of the brain's reward system which arises through transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms and occurs over time from chronically high levels of exposure to an addictive stimulus (e.g., morphine, cocaine, sexual intercourse, gambling, etc.). ΔFosB, a gene transcription factor, is a critical component and common factor in the development of virtually all forms of behavioral and drug addictions; two decades of research into ΔFosB's role in addiction have demonstrated that addiction arises, and addictive behavior intensifies or attenuates, along with the genetic overexpression of ΔFosB in the D1-type medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens; due to the causal relationship between ΔFosB expression and addictions, it is used preclinically as an addiction biomarker. ΔFosB expression in these neurons directly and positively regulates drug self-administration and reward sensitization through positive reinforcement, while decreasing sensitivity to aversion.Addiction exacts an astoundingly high toll on individuals and society as a whole through the direct adverse effects of drugs, associated healthcare costs, long-term complications (e.g., lung cancer with smoking tobacco, liver cirrhosis with drinking alcohol, or meth mouth from intravenous methamphetamine), the functional consequences of altered neural plasticity in the brain, and the consequent loss of productivity. Classic hallmarks of addiction include impaired control over substances or behavior, preoccupation with substance or behavior, and continued use despite consequences. Habits and patterns associated with addiction are typically characterized by immediate gratification (short-term reward), coupled with delayed deleterious effects (long-term costs).Examples of drug and behavioral addictions include: alcoholism, amphetamine addiction, cocaine addiction, nicotine addiction, opiate addiction, exercise addiction, food addiction, gambling addiction, and sexual addiction. The term addiction is misused frequently to refer to other compulsive behaviors or disorders, particularly dependence, in news media.