Salmonella spp. from wild birds and poultry reared outdoors Campylobacter
... STUDY I: Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. in backyard and free-range
poultry in Spain: occurrence, antimicrobial resistance and strain diversity .......49
Introduction .............. ...
Evaluation of humoral immune response, body weight and blood
... Yanke, Bae, Selinger, & Cheng, 1998; Yoon et al., 1996) has been screened for obtaining a potential
phytase. Due to some biological properties, bacterial phytase especially those of genera Bacillus and
Enterobacter, exhibits a pH optimum in the range from 6–8, close to the physiological pH of chicke ...
The Canadian Pandemic Influenza Plan for the Health Sector
... health care workers. As a practical working tool, it also provides guidelines and checklists to assist various
jurisdictions with their emergency planning.
Ongoing planning for the health sector response is expected to raise the overall level of preparedness to
deal with pandemic influenza in Canada ...
Stopping poliovirus vaccination after eradication
... available and not used at any other time of the year
(14). Several studies have demonstrated that vaccinederived poliovirus persists for a limited period in
Cuba; evidence of virus replication can be detected
for not more than 3 months after a mass campaign
(15, 16). This conclusion is supported by ...
characterization of escherichia coli strains
... (Van den Bogaard et al., 2001; White et al., 2001). The shedding of pathogens by
apparently asymptomatic healthy animals is increasing concern as a source, and
distribution of food borne diseases (FBDs) (Bayleyegn et al., 2003; Dufrenne et al.,
2001; Van den Bogaard et al., 2001). The process of evi ...
Persistence of Disease Agents in Carcases / Animal
... agents in carcases and animal products. In particular, there very few primary studies on the
inactivation of agents in disposal methods other than leaving in situ, incineration and burial.
A number of the experts contacted commented on the paucity of information available.
Reasons for this lack of i ...
... McGowan, 1996; Acar and Rostel, 2001). Antimicrobial use in food animal production may
become a public health issue when resistant organisms or their resistance genes spread from
animals to humans by direct contact or through the food chain (Aarestrup, 2005; Wassenaar,
2005). The MRSA is currently ...
... infection in a Culex species enhanced rather than inhibited West Nile virus infection . The
mechanism(s) underlying Wolbachia’s antiviral properties in the mosquito A. aegypti are only
partially understood. It has been shown that Wolbachia primes the innate immune system of
the symbiont [17,22], ...
Structure resolution of the trimeric RNA
... the proper execution of the viral cycle. The processes
driving these activities and their regulations are poorly
understood at the molecular level so far. Intrinsic characteristics of the polymerase complex, as well as interaction
with different sets of viral or host factors, are thought
to determin ...
to the Ministry`s Pandemic Influenza Preparedness and
... The Trinidad and Tobago Pandemic Influenza Plan (the Plan) consists of an introduction
and a background section, followed by the preparedness, response and recovery sections,
which are consistent with the general principals of emergency response. Each section
aims to assist and facilitate appropriat ...
Final Program - International Conference on Emerging Infectious
... the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists, and the World Health Organization, with
additional support from more than 25 multidisciplinary public health partners.
Since the last ICEID, we have witnessed the largest outbreak of Ebola virus disease on record,
the emergence of a new severe re ...
ACIP Recommendations on Influenza Vaccination
... that confer a higher risk for influenza complications, these
persons should be vaccinated only with TIV. Although vaccination coverage has increased in recent years for many groups
recommended for routine vaccination, considerable room for
improvement remains (13), and strategies to improve vaccinat ...
Distribution of Salmonella serovars along the food
... salmonellosis cases in Poland (78.6% in 2014), along
with S. Infantis and S. Mbandaka (27, 28), represented
also serovars most frequently observed in animals. It
was particularly demonstrated in poultry, where in the
case of hens and geese dominating serovars proved to be
S. Enteritidis, S. Infantis ...
WHO Regional Office for Europe guidance for sentinel influenza
... monitoring influenza viruses, disease trends and risk factors, and 2) estimating the burden of
disease. While a sentinel surveillance system may be designed to address each of these sets of
objectives to some degree, countries should consider the relative importance of each of these
objectives to ...
ASPR TRACIE Zika Virus Disease Resources at Your Fingertips
... Figure 1 shows countries that have reported local transmission of Zika virus. Figure 2 shows
locations within the continental U.S., where Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes, the
primary vectors of Zika, dengue, and chikungunya viruses, are found. These Aedes mosquitoes
have been found in 30 ...
Risk assessment - Office of the Gene Technology Regulator
... dealings involving the intentional release (DIR) of genetically modified (GM) fowl
adenovirus into the environment, on a limited scale and under controlled conditions, in
respect of application (DIR 046/2003) from Imugene Limited.
The Gene Technology Act 2000 (the Act) and the Gene Technology Regula ...
... in the wild. Here we show how healthy, normally gregarious Caribbean spiny lobsters
(Panulirus argus) avoid conspecifics that are
infected with a lethal virus. Early detection
and avoidance of infected, though not yet
infectious, individuals by healthy lobsters confers a selective advantage and high ...
Is swine flu
... instances, people have developed the swine flu infection when they are closely
associated with pigs (for example, farmers, pork processors), and likewise, pig
populations have occasionally been infected with the human flu infection. In most
instances, the cross-species infections (swine virus to man ...
In tro d uc
... Infectious bursal disease (IBD), or Gumboro disease, is a viral disease
affecting chickens in a subclinical form (early bursa atrophy) that may lead to
a temporary or permanent immunosuppression. The clinical form in chickens
may appear at 3–6 weeks of age. The bursa becomes swollen and then
Risk assessment and new developing strategies to reduce
... Over the last two decades, Campylobacter has emerged as the most commonly reported cause of bacterial enteritis in
humans in the UE and most other developed countries. Campylobacter spp. contamination of chicken carcasses is
common, and poultry is generally recognised to play a significant role in h ...
Expert Opinion on Vaccine and/or Diagnostic Banks for Major
... Under Pillar 3 in particular, as point 24 of the programming document3 for the Action Plan, a
task force was created to assist the Commission in the development of this policy paper on
EU vaccine/antigen banks for major animal diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD),
classical swine fever (CSF ...
Salmonella Vaccine, Inactivated
... 0.2 ml of the pooled allantoic liquid from the live embryos and into each of 10 similar eggs
0.2 ml of the pooled liquid from the dead embryos and incubate for 5 to 6 days. Examine for
abnormalities all embryos which die after 24 hours of injection or which survive 5 to 6 days. No
death or abnormali ...
Vertical transmission of West Nile Virus in Culex spp. mosquitoes of
... Zoonotic diseases are infections naturally transmitted between vertebrate
animals and people. An estimated 75% of emerging infectious diseases are
zoonotic pathogens of viral origin and include Human Immunodeficiency Virus
(HIV), Sudden Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Ebola and monkey pox
North Carolina`s Ethical Guidelines for an Influenza Pandemic
... Joint Centre for Bioethics, who gave one of the first presentations and discussed the
ethical issues that arose during the SARS epidemic in Toronto. Her presentation
helped provide context for the work of the Task Force. We would also like to thank
Cheryl A. Perry, JD, Assistant Attorney General, NC ...
Avian influenza — known informally as avian flu or bird flu — refers to ""influenza caused by viruses adapted to birds."" The type with the greatest risk is highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI).""Bird flu"" is a phrase similar to ""swine flu,"" ""dog flu,"" ""horse flu,"" or ""human flu"" in that it refers to an illness caused by any of many different strains of influenza viruses that have adapted to a specific host. All known viruses that cause influenza in birds belong to the species influenza A virus. All subtypes (but not all strains of all subtypes) of influenza A virus are adapted to birds, which is why for many purposes avian flu virus is the influenza A virus. (Note, however, that the ""A"" does not stand for ""avian"").Adaptation is not exclusive. Being adapted toward a particular species does not preclude adaptations, or partial adaptations, toward infecting different species. In this way, strains of influenza viruses are adapted to multiple species, though may be preferential toward a particular host. For example, viruses responsible for influenza pandemics are adapted to both humans and birds. Recent influenza research into the genes of the Spanish flu virus shows it to have genes adapted to both birds and humans, with more of its genes from birds than less deadly later pandemic strains.While its most highly pathogenic strain (H5N1) had been spreading throughout Asia since 2003, avian influenza reached Europe in 2005, and the Middle East, as well as Africa, the following year. On January 22, 2012, China reported its second human death due to bird flu in a month following other fatalities in Vietnam and Cambodia. Companion birds in captivity and parrots are highly unlikely to contract the virus, and there has been no report of a companion bird with avian influenza since 2003. Pigeons do not contract or spread the virus. 84% of affected bird populations are composed of chicken and farm birds, while the 15% is made up of wild birds according to capture-and-release operations in the 2000s, during the SARs pandemic. The first deadly Canadian case was confirmed on January 3, 2014. On December 2, 2014, two turkey farms in British Columbia, Canada, had been placed under quarantine after the Canadian Food Inspection Agency confirmed an avian flu outbreak.