What is World History
... the different responses to them. It [world history] has turned them [world historians] away
from linear development, from the thread allegedly running through history from its earliest
beginnings to the present day, to the comparative study of the institutions, habits, ideas and
assumptions of men i ...
... How does a sociologists examine our world? From the list below, put a
checkmark in the box to the left of each sentence that correctly applies to a
sociologists perspective. Only select 7 of the boxes.
1. They use commonsense notions or knowledge.
2. Some would be most interested in the demographic ...
Resolving the Environmentalist`s Paradox
... President Nicolas Sarkozy – identified numerous factors that make
up well – being ; those that can be measures such as emotional
happiness. Both types of measures – objective and subjective
Raudsepp-Hearne explains the paradox – the expectation of a time
lag in humanity’s response to diminishing eco ...
Evolutionary theory - Glen Innes High School
... civilisation), which in itself is a huge assumption
It suggests that societies used to be very simple, and as time progresses, they have
become more complex (e.g. the move from hunter and gatherers to an agricultural based
society towards a more modern, industrialised society and then post industria ...
world his study guide ch 1-3
... All human beings today belong to the australopithecines subspecies
of human beings.
The Paleolithic Age is the period in which humans used simple stone
The real change in the Neolithic Revolution was the shift from
hunting and gathering to systematic agriculture.
The ability to acquire food o ...
OCR GCSE MODERN WORLD HISTORY
... Were the Peace Treaties of 1919-23 fair?
To what extent was the League of Nations a success?
Why had international peace collapsed by 1939?
Seven Key Themes handout
... The Church's social teaching is a rich treasure of wisdom about building a just society and living lives of
holiness amidst the challenges of modern society. Modern Catholic social teaching has been articulated through
a tradition of papal, conciliar, and episcopal documents. The depth and richness ...
... • Better safe than sorry BUT Nothing ventured,
• Two heads are better than one BUT If you want
something done right, do it yourself.
... This social philosophy was based on the notion that order exists prior to social
institutions. It is a transcendent reality embedded in creation itself. A ‘true society’ is
one that mirrors or reflects or displays this transcendent order. Transcendent order is
expressed in LAW = Natural Law. A law ( ...
1991 Message Love is the Most Powerful Force in Society For World
... It should not be forgotten that cultural, ethnic and linguistic diversity is part of the 
natural order of creation and that, as such, it cannot be eliminated. Thus the human
family’s road to unity will has as its criterion of authenticity respect for and the
development of the part played by ...
Mill - Key Statements in Utiltarianism
... lower? Ask the people who are familiar with both kinds. This is an ongoing test. The
more evidence we can pile up, the better. This test also applies to deciding between
values and behavior of different cultures that seem to conflict (211, 2). See also 214, 2
(note his wording): “…the test of qualit ...
OH05 Week of Feb. 6 (PDF file)
... o To see the truth, “the entire soul must be turned away from this changing world,
until its eye can contemplate reality”
o The art of teaching will not attempt to “put the power of sight into the soul’s eye,”
but will rather “ensure that instead of looking in the wrong direction, [the soul] is
Key Principles of Catholic Social Teaching
... believe that the economy must serve people, not the other way around. If the dignity of work is to be protected,
then the basic rights of workers must be respected – the right to productive work, to decent and fair wages, to
organize and join unions, to private property and to economic initiative.
... In Aristotle’s book politics, man was referred to as “zoon politikon”,
meaning “political animal” and this is aimed at portraying human beings
as social beings.
The main terms in the topic being discussed should be firstly explained:
Ethics are moral principles that guide a person’s behaviour
The Enlightenment and the Science of Man
... method of reasoning”. All knowledge was to be based on experience – to understand
how we know “we need to think about how we think and understand”.
Passions are more important for understanding behaviour than reason, and morality is
found in the judgements we make, moral subjects being concerned wit ...
... 8. Immanuel Kant argued in his book The
Critique of Pure Reason that
a. Any social problem could be solved with one
application of human reason
b. All humans had enough reason to act
morally in society
c. Philosophers should not concern
themselves with worldly affairs
d. Some philosophical question ...
Points of Discussion
... cognition and can therefore never be totally value-free.
• While many aspects of the physical world may be constant
and predictable, living beings and random occurrences have
an element of uncertainty that may allow understanding but
not always allow prediction and control.
AP World History Key Terms Chapter 1
... “Old stone age”; simple tool use – rocks & sticks for hunting and
warfare; spread of human species over the Earth’s surface; longest
span of time within human existence
“New stone age”; invention of agriculture; began in the Middle East
and spread to other centers (India, north Africa, China); peopl ...
... representatives from some 15 European countries.
Through this work we have been able to chart the
50-year journey from the birth of the neurosciences
in the 1960s to their current state in which many
thousands of research papers are published every
year, in hundreds of journals, with contributions f ...
... I. Locating world history in the environment and time
A. Environment – environment as historical actor
1. Interaction of geography and climate with the development of human society
2. Major population changes resulting from human and environmental factors
B. Time - periodization in early human histo ...
CHINA’S POPULATION & DEVELOPMENT
... • Human development advocates for people’s freedom to
choose the lives they want, enhancing freedom is
ultimately the goal of human development, the means to
achieve it, and its guarantee for sustainability.
what do we mean by economic development
... economic growth is not sufficient for improving
living standards because of problems related
to how income in spent and distributed:
1. governments may promote economic
growth to attain other goals other than
improving its citizens well-being
2. resources may be heavily invested in further
growth w ...
Discussion - Community Development Alliance Scotland
... 3. What is your vision for community development in Scotland – of how
different strands of policy and practice could be brought together to achieve
To turn the legally unacceptable into the socially unacceptable.
Don’t over intellectualise – just get in about it.
Those of us involved ...
Unit #2 – Social Change
... Eve). Change then occurred as a result of a decay or degeneration in society
(think apple). Using this approach sociologists believed that as societies
decayed (became more interested in material items) they would become less
spiritual and less able to provide for and protect their citizens.
2. Cycl ...
Parametric determinism refers to a Marxist interpretation of the course of history formulated by Ernest Mandel, and it could be viewed as one variant of Karl Marx's historical materialism or as a philosophy of history.In an article critical of the Analytical Marxism of Jon Elster, Mandel explains the idea as follows:In formal-logical determinism, human action is considered either rational, and hence logically explicable, or else arbitrary and random (in which case human actions can be comprehended at best only as patterns of statistical distributions, i.e. as degrees of variability relative to some constants). But in dialectical determinism, human action may be non-arbitrary and determinate, hence reasonable, even although it is not explicable exclusively in formal-logical terms. The action selected by people from a limited range of options may not be the most logical one, but it can be shown to be non-arbitrary and reasonable under the circumstances, if the total context is considered.What this means is that, in human situations, typically several ""logics"" are operating at the same time which together determine the outcomes of those situations:the logic of the actors themselves.the logic of the parameters constraining their behaviour.the logic of the interactive relationship between actors and their situation.If one considered only one of these aspects, one might judge people's actions ""irrational"", but if all three aspects are taken into account, what people do may appear ""very reasonable"". Dialectical theory aims to demonstrate this, by linking different ""logical levels"" together as a total picture, in a non-arbitrary way. ""Different logical levels"" means that particular determinants regarded as irrelevant at one level of analysis are excluded, but are relevant and included at another level of analysis with a somewhat different (or enlarged) set of assumptions.—depending on the kind of problem being investigated. For example, faced with a situation, the language which people use to talk about it, reveals that they can jump very quickly from one context to another related context, knowing very well that at least some of the inferences that can be drawn in the one context are not operative in the other context. That's because they know that the assumptions in one context differ to some degree from the other. Nevertheless, the two contexts can coexist, and can be contained in the same situation, which we can demonstrate by identifying the mediating links. This is difficult to formalize precisely, yet people do it all the time, and think it perfectly ""reasonable"". For another example, people will say ""you can only understand this if you are in the situation yourself"" or ""on the ground."" What they mean is that the meaning of the totality of interacting factors involved can only be understood by experiencing them. Standing outside the situation, things seem irrational, but being there, they appear very reasonable.Dialectical theory does not mean that, in analyzing the complexity of human action, inconvenient facts are simply and arbitrarily set aside. It means, rather, that those facets of the subjectmatter which are not logically required at a given stage of the analysis are set aside. Yet, and this is the point, as the analysis progresses, the previously disregarded aspects are integrated step by step into the analysis, in a consistent way. The proof of the validity of the procedure is that, at the end, the theory has made the subjectmatter fully self-explanatory, since all salient aspects have been given their appropriate place in the theory, so that all of it becomes comprehensible, without resort to shallow tautologies. This result can obviously be achieved only after the research has already been done, and the findings can be arranged in a convincing way. A synthesis cannot be achieved without a preceding analysis. So dialectical analysis is not a ""philosopher's stone"" that provides a quick short-cut to the ""fount of wisdom"", but a mode of presenting findings of the analysis after knowledge has been obtained through inquiry and research, and dialectical relationships have been verified. Because only then does it become clear where the story should begin and end, so that all facets are truly explained. According to Ernest Mandel, ""Marx's method is much richer than the procedures of ' successive concretization' or 'approximation' typical of academic science.""In mainstream social theory, the problem of ""several logics"" in human action is dealt with by game theory, a kind of modelling which specifies the choices and options which actors have within a defined setting, and what the effects are of their decisions. The main limitation of that approach is, that the model is only as good as the assumptions on which it is based, while the choice of assumptions is often eclectic or fairly arbitrary. Dialectical theory attempts to overcome this problem, by paying attention to the sources of assumptions, and by integrating the assumptions in a consistent way.