Bellini–Tosi direction finder
A Bellini–Tosi direction finder (B–T or BTDF) is a type of radio direction finder (RDF), which determines the direction to, or bearing, of a radio transmitter. Earlier RDF systems used very large rotating loop antennas, which the B–T system replaced with two fixed antennae and a small rotating loop, known as a radiogoniometer. This made RDF much more practical, especially on large vehicles like ships or when using very long wavelengths that demand large antennae.BTDF was invented by a pair of Italian officers in the early 1900s, and is sometimes known as a Marconi–Bellini–Tosi after they joined forces with the Marconi Company in 1912. BTDF was the most prevalent form of naval direction finding from the 1920s to well into the 1980s, and were a used as a major part of early long-distance air navigation systems from the 1930s until after World War II. BTDF systems were also widely used for military signals intelligence gathering.During the war, new techniques like huff-duff began to replace radiogoniometers in the intelligence gathering role, reducing the time needed to take an accurate fix from minutes to seconds. The ability to inexpensively process radio signals using microcontrollers allowed pseudo-doppler direction finders to take over most of the radiogoniometer's remaining roles from the 1980s. In spite of seeing little use today, the original antennae of BTDF systems can still be seen on many ships and boats.