Implicit Memory for New Associations: An
... from the interpretive encoding operations applied to a word
pair, it should be possible to demonstrate the effect without
requiring subjects to engage in an extended elaborative processing task. All that should be necessary is to encourage
subjects to initially encode members of a pair in relation t ...
The impact of iconic gestures on foreign language word learning
... front of themselves, to rub their legs, and turn their heads,
for example. Moreover, for each word, the meaningless gestures were randomly interchanged at every single trial during the training sessions. By doing this, our aim was to
prevent these gestures becoming symbolic and possibly supporting a ...
Cognitive Development in Infancy
... As we first noted in Chapter 1, Piaget’s theory is based on a stage approach to development. He assumed that all children pass through a series of four universal stages in a fixed
order from birth through adolescence: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational. He als ...
More is Better: The Effects of Multiple Repetitions on Implicit Memory
... In the Reder et al. (1998) experiments, the words were
selected from the Medical Research Council psycholinguistic database (Coltheart, 1981). Half the word were selected
to have high normative frequencies, and half were selected
to have low frequencies. The mean normative Kucera and
Francis (1967) ...
Learning Morphology by Itself1 - Mediterranean Morphology Meetings
... phonologically weak, often unstressed, word boundary positions. Moreover, they
convey fairly abstract and procedural semantic content (i.e. morpho-syntactic
properties), having very few if any perceptual correlates in the grounding environment
where words are uttered. Finally, when a language offers ...
Number and Size Matter: Discrete versus continuous
... possess a discrete quantity system that applies to small set
sizes, although there is some debate as to whether this
system is the same as in adults or if it develops over time
(see Carey, 2004). Research has also shown that young
children generalize names for objects by shape but by
material for su ...
The Spanish adaptation of ANEW (Affective Norms for English Words)
... than the Spanish ones in the dominance dimension. As before, this result was also obtained with images (IAPS) by
Moltó et al., suggesting that Americans possess a higher
perception of control relative to affective stimuli, be they
words or images.
We were also interested in looking for differences w ...
... look. A set of instructions accompanying a copy
showing how it is to be set up.
There are degrees of layouts : rough, finished, and
mechanical representing various stages of finish
Layouts need hard working and imagination in order
to get high visibility, notice and attention.
A good copy must be st ...
Activation of phonological codes during reading: Evidence
... a target word is a member of a given category (Van Orden, 1987; Van Orden, Johnston & Hale,
1988). The typical finding is that participants make more false categorization responses to
homophones, which sounds like the genuine category member, than they do to controls, which are
orthographically simi ...
emergence of linguistic features: independent
... discernable in a higher level of abstraction than in the process of finding the
original speech signals. For the BSS example presented above, the task was to
find out what are the original signals and in which proportion each original
signal is present in the perceived signals. In a more general lev ...
Year 4 - Writing - Spelling
... Pupils should be taught the different graphemes that could be used to spell the same phoneme and
that sometimes there are quite a few ways of spelling the same sound. In phonics and English
lessons, these phonemes should be made explicit when the adult models shared writing or spelling
words. Pupils ...
The Role of analogy in cognitive science
... an interesting challenge for artificial intelligence. The concept of analogy requires some
ability to perceive likeness between dissimilar objects/abstractions in different domains and
extrapolate a relationship for other situations. As such, analogies may cover a wide array of
concepts, and may ...
Infant Lab Newsletter 2010_2
... knowledge of the language grows.
Another possibility, however, is
that some children are simply
better able to listen in noise than
are others - and those that are
better have more opportunities to
learn (and thus show larger
vocabularies). While the direction
of the effect is not clear, the
Mean - Fitchburg State University
... recognition test is superior to that on a recall test (Balota &
Neely ,1980; Petrusic & Dillon, 1972). During a recognition
test, a participant sees a word or answer and picks it out from
others, because it looks familiar. During a recall task, the
participant has to generate the information from lo ...
Sensitivity to sampling in Bayesian word learning
... contrast, a contrast between patterns of generalization
in two different kinds of trials. On a one-example trial,
the experimenter pointed to an object, e.g. a toy basset
hound, and taught the learner a new word with an
utterance such as ‘See this? This is a fep!’ She continued
talking and interacti ...
To the Teacher - The University of Michigan Press
... complete the 25 items in these exercises. Students should then correct their answers. Since it is
difficult for students to catch their own errors in this kind of proofreading exercise, it is
recommended that students exchange exercises and check each other’s work to ensure accurate
correcting. For ...
Ch. 10: Technology and Learning
... The Multimedia Principle
The case for multimedia learning rests on
the premise that learners can better
understand an explanation when it is
presented via two channels
(auditory/verbal & visual/pictorial).
HGD HW Ch 4 2013
... evening, he turns on the water and helps Jaxon into the tub, but lets Jaxon wash himself. The next
night, he lets Jaxon turn the water on and adjust the temperature himself. Finally, on the last night he
asks Jaxon to go take a shower without helping him at all. This withdrawal of help that is no lo ...
... than when holding it with lips; even funnier if
holding it with teeth.
(But note that the effect goes away when it
pertains specifically to “objective” funniness, as
opposed to the subjective feeling of
... communicated by virtue of what language refers
Connotative meaning first be considered to be
related with real world experience one associates
with an expression when one uses or hears it.
Connotative meaning is compared with
conceptual meaning since convocations
considerably according to cu ...
Jeff Elman In what ways does language aid human cognition and
... True/False – Bees typically only communicate with other bees to describe where
A person with Broca's Aphasia typically would NOT be able to:
a. Count out loud on their fingers
b. Sing a song
c. Respond to a simple question that required little thought
d. Retell the story ...
In cognitive psychology, fast mapping is the term used for the hypothesized mental process whereby a new concept is learned (or a new hypothesis formed) based only on a single exposure to a given unit of information. Fast mapping is thought by some researchers to be particularly important during language acquisition in young children, and may serve (at least in part) to explain the prodigious rate at which children gain vocabulary. In order to successfully use the fast mapping process, a child must possess the ability to use ""referent selection"" and ""referent retention"" of a novel word. There is evidence that this can be done by children as young as two years old, even with the constraints of minimal time and several distractors. Previous research in fast mapping has also shown that children are able to retain a newly learned word for a substantial amount of time after they are subjected to the word for the first time (Carey and Bartlett, 1978). Further research by Markson and Bloom (1997), showed that children can remember a novel word a week after it was presented to them even with only one exposure to the novel word. While children have also displayed the ability to have equal recall for other types of information, such as novel facts, their ability to extend the information seems to be unique to novel words. This suggests that fast mapping is a specified mechanism for word learning. The process was first formally articulated and the term 'fast mapping' coined by Harvard researchers Susan Carey and Elsa Bartlett in 1978.