The Incoherence of the Incoherence
... and Physics, have left the religion of their fathers in which they were
brought up to follow the philosophers. The theories of the philosophers are
many, but Ghazali will attack only one, the greatest, Aristotle; Aristotle, of
whom it is said that he refuted all his predecessors, even Plato, excusi ...
Logic Notes 2006
... way as to help them decide which of the possible answers to the questions are true. The
philosopher’s thinking about the general and basic questions that remain as the subject
matter of philosophy frequently takes the form of arguments. So we are going to begin
our study of philosophical problems by ...
The Ontological Argument in PVS 1 Introduction
... and bypasses the premises otherwise needed to establish that fact.
In PVS, these issues of definedness, existence of constants, and quantification
over possibly empty domains are addressed soundly by its logic and enforced by its
automation. Quantification in PVS is over types, which may be empty: u ...
ABSOLUTE - Polskie Towarzystwo Tomasza z Akwinu
... rule by which all things become reality, and a law that is common to all things and rules all.
Thus it contains rationality and intelligence.
Pythagoras took number as the absolute principle of everything. He understood number as a
synthesis of two more primordial elements: the boundless (that which ...
... Notice that 3 and 4 do not
Necessarily, a being has maximal
imply that there are
excellence in every world only if
possible but non-existent
it has omniscience, omnipotence,
and moral perfection in every
A Study Guide to Descartes` Meditations
... sceptical challenge seriously, not by believing the
skeptic outright, but rather by withholding assent to
any belief that is vulnerable to the sceptical attack.
‘It will not be necessary for me to show that all my
opinions are false’; instead ‘I should hold back my
assent from opinions which are not ...
On the Logic of the Ontological Argument
... Thinking Machines Corporation
Edward N. Zalta
Saint Anselm of Canterbury offered several arguments for the existence
of God. We examine the famous ontological argument in Proslogium ii.
Many recent authors have interpreted this argument as a modal one.1 ...
SWINB.URNE`S ARGUMENT FROM CONSCIOUSNESS
... losophy of religion iff A's premises (i) add to the probability of its conclusion and
(ii) "are known to be true by those who argue about religion.,,4 The second stage
in the program is a demonstration that these (six) C-inductive arguments, when
combined, yield a good P-inductive argument to the ex ...
... take up space, they take up time. An idealist such as George Berkeley
could still ask ‘Why is there is something rather than nothing?’ even
though he was convinced that material things are not possible
The Relevance of Kant's Objection to Anselm's Ontological Argument
... being that exists in reality as well as in the understanding seems greater than an
otherwise similar one that exists just in the understanding.2 These two claims imply
the contradictory thought that we can imagine a being greater than the greatest
imaginable being. Thus, the original atheist supposi ...
The Miracle of Theism
... 2. If a proposition is impossible in at least one possible
world, then it is impossible in every possible world.
3. Accordingly, it is impossible in the actual world.
4. If it is impossible then there actually exists a being
that is omnipotent, omniscient, and morally perfect;
this being has these q ...
Michael Martin and the moral argument for God`s existence
... culminating, perhaps, with Time magazine’s April 8, 1966, title: “Is God Dead?”—philosophers
are once again vigorously debating the rationality of theistic belief. Emerging from amid this
renaissance is an increasing number of publications treating the various so-called “theistic
proofs” or argument ...
Chapter 2 Metaphysics, Fideism, Speculation
... necessarily. The critique of ideologies, which ultimately always
consists in demonstrating that a social situation which is
presented as inevitable is actually contingent, is essentially
indissociable from the critique of metaphysics, the latter being
understood as the illusory manufacturing of nece ...
Can We Believe Without Sufficient Evidence? The James/Clifford
... rational when it isn’t generated by a cognitive system with some kind of malfunction.
An immense number of beliefs might also be considered rational, as long as the
believer isn’t aware of some defeater, namely, a belief p which, if sustained, has the
capacity to defeat a previously held belief. If ...
QUESTION 46 The Beginning of Duration for Created Things The
... It seems that the universe of creatures (universitas creaturarum), which goes by the name ‘the
world’ (mundum), did not begin to exist, but has instead existed from eternity:
Objection 1: Everything that began to exist is such that before it existed, it was possible for it to
exist; otherwise, it wo ...
Kant`s Pre-Critical Proof for God`s Existence
... Kant continued to lecture his entire academic career. It both criticizes and critically
appropriates elements from that tradition in an attempt to work out a better theory of
possibility than that on offer in those books. The failure of Kant (and his successors down
to the twentieth century) to jus ...
Why Hume and Kant were mistaken in rejecting natural theology
... different from those in many respects. Suppose Hume has impressions of what are in fact
eighteenth- century European humans. These impressions can give rise to an idea applicable
to and only to eighteenth-century European humans. But they could also give rise to an idea
applicable to and only to hu ...
First Prize: An Analysis of the Ontological Argument of St Anselm
... St Anselm (1033CE-1109CE) was a philosopher and theologian and held the office of
Archbishop of Canterbury from 1093CE until his death. He is remembered chiefly as the
originator of the first ‘Ontological Argument’ for the existence of God. Ontological
Arguments1 are a priori2 arguments purporting t ...
Introduction to Philosophy
... XI. A priori and a posteriori
P The ontological argument is an example of an a priori
argument for God’s existence.
P A priori statements are explained by the use of thought,
rather than experience.
P A statement is believed a priori if our justification of that
belief is independent of e ...
The Philosophy of Don Hasdai Crescas: Chapter II Meyer Waxman
... THEexistence of God is proved by Crescas in a very
he proof runs in the following way :
Whether there is a finite or an infinite number of effects,
or whether an infinite series of causes is given, but as long
as the series is infinite and all things are caused, we do
not find in natu ...
... discover something about the divine.
They do not assume the truth of some special revelation;
they allow only what reason can prove.
Natural Theology has as its professed object to vindicate
our belief in God, and to deal with the manifold
objections, which from a wide variety of standpoints have
... “Kant himself in a later work, and many other thinkers, have argued from the existence of the moral law to
a lawgiver, God. This argument has also been used: The moral law is objective. In what, then, does it
reside? Certainly not in the physical world. Nor only in the minds of men. An ethical propo ...
the new Calvinist epistemology
... In the absence of a compelling case from his opponents, Plantinga
feels justified in making a case of his own for distinguishing those beliefs
which may be properly basic for someone and those which may not. The
intended result of his analysis is, of course, that belief in God may be
properly basic, ...
Existence is a real
... Miller was aware that most philosophers in the Western tradition going back to
Greek philosophy have denied that existence is a real property; the only period in which
that view was widely held was the high middle ages. (The historical point is developed in
The Fullness of Existence, p. 10-17.) Neve ...
PART FOUR 4A Plato The Beginning of Everything Review
... 2. Conway says that in God “there can exist no new knowledge or Will, but his knowledge and
Will are eternal.” What is the difference between “eternal” and “infinite time”?
3. Explain Conway’s meaning when she says, “Likewise, in God there can exist no passion,
which to speak properly comes from his ...
Existence of God
Arguments for and against the existence of God have been proposed by philosophers, theologians, scientists, and others for thousands of years. In philosophical terms, such arguments involve primarily the disciplines of epistemology (the nature and scope of knowledge) and ontology (study of the nature of being, existence, or reality) and also the theory of value, since concepts of perfection are connected to notions of God. A wide variety of arguments exist which can be categorized as metaphysical, logical, empirical, or subjective. The existence of God is subject to lively debate in philosophy, the philosophy of religion, and popular culture.The Western tradition of philosophical discussion of the existence of God began with Plato and Aristotle, who made arguments that would now be categorized as cosmological. Other arguments for the existence of God have been proposed by St. Anselm, who formulated the first ontological argument; Ibn Rushd (Averroes) and Aquinas, who presented their own versions of the cosmological argument (the kalam argument and the first way, respectively); Descartes, who said that the existence of a benevolent God was logically necessary for the evidence of the senses to be meaningful; and Immanuel Kant, who argued that the existence of God can be deduced from the existence of good. Thinkers who have provided arguments against the existence of God include David Hume, Kant, Nietzsche, and Bertrand Russell. In modern culture, the question of God's existence has been discussed by scientists such as Stephen Hawking, Francis Collins, Richard Dawkins, and John Lennox, as well as philosophers including Richard Swinburne, Alvin Plantinga, William Lane Craig, Daniel Dennett, Edward Feser, David Bentley Hart and Sam Harris.Atheism views arguments for the existence of God as insufficient, mistaken or weighing less in comparison to arguments against. Fideists acknowledge that belief in the existence of God may not be amenable to demonstration or refutation, but rests on faith alone. The Catholic Church maintains that knowledge of the existence of God is the ""natural light of human reason"". Other religions, such as Buddhism do not concern themselves with the existence of gods at all, while religions such as Jainism reject the possibility of a creator deity.