Mongol invasion of Europe
The Mongol invasion of Europe in the 13th century was the military effort by the Mongols to invade and conquer Europe. It involved the severe and rampant destruction of East Slavic principalities and major cities, such as Kiev and Vladimir. Mongol invasions also affected Central Europe, warring with the Kingdom of Hungary (in the Battle of Mohi) and causing the fragmentation of Poland (in the Battle of Legnica).The operations were masterminded by General Subutai and commanded by Batu Khan and Kadan, both grandsons of Genghis Khan. As a result of the successful invasions, many of the conquered territories would become part of the Golden Horde empire.Historians regard the Mongol raids and invasions as some of the deadliest conflicts in human history up through that period. Brian Landers argues that, ""One empire in particular exceeded any that had gone before, and crossed from Asia into Europe in an orgy of violence and destruction. The Mongols brought terror to Europe on a scale not seen again until the twentieth century."" Diana Lary contends that the Mongol invasions induced population displacement ""on a scale never seen before,"" particularly in Central Asia and Eastern Europe. She adds, ""the impending arrival of the Mongol hordes spread terror and panic.""Warring European princes realized they had to cooperate in the face of a threatened Mongol invasion, so local wars and conflicts were suspended in parts of central Europe, only to be resumed after the Mongols had withdrawn.