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Virginia Standards of Learning Workbook – Virginia and United States History

Standard VUS.8
ASSESSMENT PRACTICE
Directions: In the blank, write the letter of the choice that best completes the
statement or answers the question.
___ 1.
In the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, ____________________
helped bring about American growth and westward expansion.
a.
b.
c.
d.
___ 2.
Following the Civil War, the westward movement of settlers intensified into the
vast region between
a.
b.
c.
d.
___ 3.
help farmers find sources of cheap labor.
gave mortgage loans to families willing to settle the western territories.
completed the Transcontinental Railroad.
gave free public land in the west to settlers who would live on and farm
the land.
Southerners and African Americans _________________________ to seek
new opportunities after the Civil War.
a.
b.
c.
d.
___ 6.
a language and culture traceable to Russian language and culture
loading cattle onto transport ships for travel down rivers
a relaxed lifestyle and upscale living
long cattle drives over unfenced open land in the West
Many Americans rebuilding their lives after the Civil War took advantage of
the Homestead Act of 1862, which
a.
b.
c.
d.
___ 5.
the Great Plains and Canada.
the Mississippi River and the Pacific Ocean.
California and Mexico.
the Mississippi River and the Atlantic Ocean.
The years immediately before and after the Civil War became known as the
era of the American cowboy. Which of the following would be characteristic of
the era of the American cowboy?
a.
b.
c.
d.
___ 4.
a significant reduction in taxes
significant restrictions on immigration to cities in the northeast
industrialization and technological change
prejudice and inequality in the south
moved North
moved West
opened their own businesses
moved to Canada
Railroads made farming more profitable by
a.
b.
c.
d.
increasing the number of farmers in the West.
creating better harvests.
improving the efficiency of planting.
better connecting farms with markets.
Standard VUS.8 Assessment Practice
-1-
Virginia Standards of Learning Workbook – Virginia and United States History
___ 7.
As settlers continued to move westward after the Civil War and throughout the
remainder of the nineteenth century, American Indians
__________________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
___ 8.
Mark Twain’s characterized the Industrial Age as the “Gilded Age.” This name
was accurate because
a.
b.
c.
d.
___ 9.
d.
outside the cities in rural areas.
in harsh conditions, crowded into tenements and slums.
in special government-created ethnic neighborhoods.
in the immigrants’ country of origin.
As the population moved westward, many new states between the Great Plains
and the Rocky Mountains were added to the Union. All of the states that make
up the continental U.S. from the Atlantic to the Pacific had been admitted to the
Union by
a.
b.
c.
d.
___12.
Jim Crow Laws
The Homestead Act of 1862 and the Progressive Act of 1890
The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 and the Immigration Restriction Act of
1921
The Sherman Anti-Trust Act and the Clayton Anti-Trust Act
Factories in the large cities provided jobs, but workers’ families often lived
a.
b.
c.
d.
___11.
there were essentially no social problems that existed during this period.
the working classes in the cities became very wealthy.
the great wealth and the booming industrial growth came at a very
substantial human price paid by workers, including men, women, children,
and immigrants.
there were no trade unions or industrial unions during this period.
__________________ effectively cut off most immigration to the U.S. for
several decades.
a.
b.
c.
___10.
were permitted to remain in their existing locations.
were highly honored and respected by the U.S. government, as reflected in
a very pro-Indian federal policy.
continued to be forcibly removed from their lands.
were paid fair market value for all of the lands that the white settlers took.
the early twentieth century.
the early nineteenth century.
1850.
the 1880s.
Prior to 1871, most immigrants to the U.S. came from
a.
b.
c.
d.
eastern and southern Europe.
Asia and southern Europe
northern and western Europe.
Africa and northern Europe.
Standard VUS.8 Assessment Practice
-2-
Virginia Standards of Learning Workbook – Virginia and United States History
___13.
From 1871 to 1921, most immigrants to the U.S. emigrated from
a.
b.
c.
d.
___14.
Immigrants to the U.S. during the period from 1871 to 1921
a.
b.
c.
d.
___15.
something that immigrants refused participate in.
assisted by the process of public schooling of immigrant children.
slowed by the process of public schooling of immigrant children.
something that happened instantly upon arrival.
During the period from the Civil War to World War I, big business
a.
b.
c.
d.
___19.
Angel Island
Florida
Savannah, Georgia
the Statue of Liberty
The assimilation of immigrants into the “melting pot” of American society was
a.
b.
c.
d.
___18.
the vegetable fields in California.
textile factories in New York City.
the coal mines of the East.
building the railroads, including the Transcontinental Railroad.
An immigrant entering the U.S. from Europe in the late 19th century would most
likely look for __________________ to signal arrival to the U.S.
a.
b.
c.
d.
___17.
were not granted U.S. citizenship.
had little impact on the industrial growth of the U.S.
were characteristically very wealthy, and lived in suburbs outside of the
cities.
played a large role in the dramatic industrial growth of the U.S.
Slavs, Italians, and Poles worked mainly in
a.
b.
c.
d.
___16.
southern and eastern Europe, and Asia.
northern and western Europe, and Asia.
eastern and northern Europe.
Africa and southern Europe.
was constantly regulated by government, and could not get much
accomplished.
enjoyed a non-regulatory “laissez-faire” capitalist environment.
never formed monopolies or trusts.
was very concerned about the conditions that workers were laboring in, and
gave them great job benefits.
One of the reasons for the huge industrial economic transformation that took
place during the period from the Civil War to World War I was
a.
b.
c.
d.
an increasing labor supply from immigration and migration from farms.
a major reform effort by environmentalists.
America’s lack of natural resources and navigable rivers.
strict government regulation of businesses.
Standard VUS.8 Assessment Practice
-3-
Virginia Standards of Learning Workbook – Virginia and United States History
___20.
Immigrants to the U.S. faced many challenges including
a.
b.
c.
d.
___21.
____________________ began construction of the nation’s first subway system
around the turn of the twentieth century, and many cities began to building
trolley or streetcar lines.
a.
b.
c.
d.
___22.
steel industry.
textile industry.
drilling and refining of oil.
development of interchangeable parts.
the steel industry.
the drilling and refining of oil.
the railroad industry.
finance.
John D. Rockefeller made his fortune in
a.
b.
c.
d.
___26.
the
the
the
the
J.P. Morgan made his fortune in
a.
b.
c.
d.
___25.
a shortage of labor for factories
the growth of suburbs
an improvement in living conditions in cities
housing shortages
Andrew Carnegie made his fortune in
a.
b.
c.
d.
___24.
Chicago
Philadelphia
New York City
Richmond
Which of the following was a result the rapid growth of cities during the Gilded
Age?
a.
b.
c.
d.
___23.
resentment from other Americans because of job competition.
not being able to live near or with people of their own culture or
background.
job discrimination.
lack of immunity to American diseases.
the steel industry.
the drilling and refining of oil.
the railroad industry.
architectural design.
___________________, along with William Kelly, developed a better and more
efficient way to make a more durable and more flexible grade of steel.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Thomas Edison
Alexander Graham Bell
The Wright brothers
Henry Bessemer
Standard VUS.8 Assessment Practice
-4-
Virginia Standards of Learning Workbook – Virginia and United States History
___27.
The airplane was an innovation attributed to
a.
b.
c.
d.
___28.
Assembly line manufacturing was developed by
a.
b.
c.
d.
___29.
little advancement in technology during the Gilded Age
improved working conditions
the refusal to allow women and children to work
the excesses of the Gilded Age, including great income disparities
The goals of the Progressive Movement included
a.
b.
c.
d.
___33.
Alexander Graham Bell.
Thomas Alva Edison.
Isaac Singer.
Frank Lloyd Wright.
Which of the following was a cause of the Progressive Movement?
a.
b.
c.
d.
___32.
Alexander Graham Bell
Thomas Alva Edison
John Deere
Cyrus McCormack
In 1876, the light bulb was invented by
a.
b.
c.
d.
___31.
Henry Ford.
Henry Bessemer.
Eli Whitney.
John D. Rockefeller.
In 1879, ________________ invented the telephone.
a.
b.
c.
d.
___30.
Thomas Edison.
Alexander Graham Bell.
the Wright brothers.
Louis Sullivan.
guaranteeing economic opportunities through government regulation,
including limiting the power of big business.
making it easier for big business to lessen competition in the market place.
removing women and children from the workforce.
eliminating government regulation of business.
Booker T. Washington believed that
a.
b.
c.
d.
African Americans should become empowered with good vocational training
and jobs as a first step toward equality.
the road to equality was a quick and easy one.
education was meaningless without equality.
social separation was unacceptable.
Standard VUS.8 Assessment Practice
-5-
Virginia Standards of Learning Workbook – Virginia and United States History
___34.
W.E.B. DuBois
a.
b.
c.
d.
___35.
During the early twentieth century, African Americans in the South
a.
b.
c.
d.
___36.
d.
a method by which the state legislature could put a measure on the ballot.
a method by which the voters could put a measure on the ballot.
a method by which a public official who was not doing his or her job could
be removed by the voters.
a commission form of government.
Another progressive reform in state government was the referendum, which
provided
a.
b.
c.
d.
___39.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Ida B. Wells
Ida M. Tarbell
William Faulkner
One of the progressive reforms in state government was the initiative, which
provided
a.
b.
c.
___38.
did not migrate to western states in great numbers seeking jobs on farms.
migrated to northern cities in great numbers to try to escape poverty and to
find job opportunities in northern cities.
were successful in getting rid of all the “Jim Crow” laws.
enjoyed the same rights and opportunities as whites.
_____________________ led an anti-lynching campaign and called on the
federal government to take action to try to stop the lynchings.
a.
b.
c.
d.
___37.
believed equality was meaningless without education.
led an anti-lynching crusade.
believed that the way to equality was through vocational education.
helped form the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
(NAACP) in 1909.
a method by which citizens could vote on proposed laws directly without
going to the legislature.
a method by which the voters could put a measure on the ballot.
a method by which a public official who was not doing his or her job could
be removed by the voters.
a commission form of government.
Another progressive reform in state government was the recall, which provided
a.
b.
c.
d.
a method in which the state legislature could put a measure on the ballot.
a method in which the voters could put a measure on the ballot.
a commission form of government.
a method in which a public official who was not doing his or her job could be
removed from office by the voters.
Standard VUS.8 Assessment Practice
-6-
Virginia Standards of Learning Workbook – Virginia and United States History
___40.
After Reconstruction, many Southern state governments passed “Jim Crow”
laws, which
a.
b.
c.
d.
___41.
The Progressive Movement used government to
a.
b.
c.
d.
___42.
b.
c.
d.
the
the
the
the
17th
19th
24th
26th
Amendment
Amendment
Amendment
Amendment
The Supreme Court ruling in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), held that
a.
b.
c.
d.
___45.
a method of nominating candidate(s) in which voters select the party’s
nominee to run in the general election.
a method of nominating candidate(s) in which a convention selects the
party’s nominee to run in the general election.
a method of nominating candidate(s) in which political party bosses select
the party’s nominee to run in the general election.
a method of nominating candidate(s) in which political party bosses and the
governor select the party’s nominee to run in the general election.
Which of the following progressive reforms required that the election of U.S.
senators would be directly by the people rather than by state legislatures?
a.
b.
c.
d.
___44.
reform problems created by industrialization.
entirely eliminate social inequalities.
eliminate competition in the marketplace.
ensure prolonged segregation in the South.
One of the progressive reforms in the election process was the birth of primary
elections. Primary elections are
a.
___43.
forced the separation of races in public places.
required that equal facilities be available to all races.
required African Americans to be literate in order to vote.
required African Americans to be paid less for the same jobs as white
workers.
“separate but equal” facilities created by state law are inherently unequal.
“separate but equal” facilities created by state law violated the equal
protection clause of the 14th Amendment.
“separate but equal” facilities created by state law did not violate the equal
protection clause of the 14th Amendment.
Homer Plessy could ride in any railroad car that he wanted to, regardless of
state law.
The American Federation of Labor was a successful labor union that was
a.
b.
c.
d.
founded
ranks.
founded
founded
founded
by Terrence Powderly, and welcomed African Americans into its
by Samuel Gompers, and was a union of skilled workers.
by Eugene V. Debs, and was a union of general industrial workers.
by Walter Reuther, and was a union of automobile workers.
Standard VUS.8 Assessment Practice
-7-
Virginia Standards of Learning Workbook – Virginia and United States History
___46.
During the Gilded Age, the typical industrial worker
a.
b.
c.
d.
___47.
One of the accomplishments of labor unions was
a.
b.
c.
d.
___48.
d.
restore free competition in the marketplace.
eliminate competition in the marketplace.
force monopolies to pay damages to businesses that failed as a result of
unfair competition.
provide incentives for small businesses.
never worked at all in achieving its goals.
was only targeted at the railroad and steel industries.
was designed to halt the growth of unions.
outlawed price fixing.
The efforts toward women’s suffrage finally resulted in women gaining the
federally guaranteed right to vote in 1920 with the ratification of the
a.
b.
c.
d.
___52.
Pullman Strike
Homestead Strike
Haymarket Square Strike
Great Railroad Strike
The Clayton Anti-Trust Act of 1914
a.
b.
c.
d.
___51.
the
the
the
the
The Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890 was designed to break up trusts and
monopolies that were operating in unfair restraint of trade, and to
a.
b.
c.
___50.
to remove women from the workforce.
to eliminate competition in the marketplace.
placing a limit on the number of hours a person could work.
outlaw labor strikes.
In the later part of the nineteenth century, workers attempted to make gains
through unionizing. In Chicago in 1886, ________________ greatly damaged
the image of organized labor, particularly the Knights of Labor.
a.
b.
c.
d.
___49.
could count on government’s help if he or she became injured on the job.
would never be a child, because children were not permitted to work in
industrial jobs.
became wealthy very quickly because of the huge industrial output.
worked long hours for low pay, and often in dangerous and/or dirty
conditions.
16th Amendment.
18th Amendment.
19th Amendment.
22nd Amendment.
Susan B. Anthony was
a.
b.
c.
d.
a leader in the women’s suffrage movement.
an outspoken advocate for equal rights for African Americans.
a leader of the Haymarket Square Strike.
a supporter of the Immigration Restriction Act of 1921.
Standard VUS.8 Assessment Practice
-8-
Virginia Standards of Learning Workbook – Virginia and United States History
___53.
The _________________ played an important role in bringing about reform in
the form of new regulations to protect women and workers in the workplace.
a.
b.
c.
d.
___54.
Knights of Labor
United Steel Workers
International Ladies’ Garment Workers Union
American Railway Union
During the Progressive Era, “muckrakers” were
a.
b.
c.
d.
___55.
the
the
the
the
journalists and authors who examined social issues and problems of the
time, wrote about them, and in the process became a force to bring about
government and social efforts to address those issues and problems.
journalists and authors who wrote material that almost always favored big
business.
the nickname given to the industrialists.
the nickname given to the nine members of the U.S. Supreme Court.
From 1870 to about 1890, there were approximately 89,000 African Americans
who migrated from the South to the North – often to northern cities to find job
opportunities and to escape “Jim Crow.” From 1890 through World War I, about
500,000 African Americans took part in this “Great Migration” northward. One of
the primary reasons the huge increase in this rate of migration was that
a.
b.
c.
d.
gold was discovered in the Dakotas.
more job opportunities arose in the North, as a result of decreasing
immigration, a growing economy, and then World War I production.
African Americans suffered no discrimination at all in the northern cities.
African Americans had great opportunity in the South, but they just got tired
of it.
Standard VUS.8 Assessment Practice
-9-
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