Chapter 11 Multiple-Choice Questions 1. a. b. c. d. Which of the following is true with respect to interpersonal conflict? It involves independent parties. It involves perceived scarce resources. It occurs within oneself. It is synonymous with disagreement. 2. Felix had been angry with his roommate Hector for some time. Hector was always playing his music so loudly that Felix couldn’t concentrate, much less have a conversation on the telephone. Despite his anger, he hadn’t expressed his feelings to Hector. Which of the following is true of this situation? a. Hector and Felix are engaged in conflict, because Felix’s anger is sufficient to produce conflict. b. Hector and Felix are not engaged in conflict, because the source of their conflict is not interpersonal. c. Hector and Felix are engaged in conflict, because conflict can exist “under the surface” for some time. d. Hector and Felix are not engaged in conflict, because conflict must be expressed. 3. Frank and Samantha just received a large inheritance when Samantha’s grandmother passed away. Samantha said she wanted to use the money to build an addition onto their house. Frank said he wanted to buy a more fuel-efficient car. Which of the following is true about this situation? a. This is an example of conflict, because it involves an expressed struggle. b. This is an example of conflict, because it involves scarce resources. c. This is an example of conflict, because it involves incompatible goals. d. All of these are true. 4. Which of the following is NOT one of the common conflict metaphors identified in your textbook? a. Conflict is a war. b. Conflict is a dance. c. Conflict is a hammer. d. Conflict is a game. 5. a. b. c. d. Which of the following statements accurately reflects the idea of “reframing” a conflict? thinking of conflict as a game when you traditionally think of it as a battle engaging in a cooling-off period before you have a conflict discussion trying to see a conflict from someone else’s point of view minimizing your responsibility for a conflict Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 6. a. b. c. d. The content dimension of a conflict relates to what? the implications of the conflict for the relationship the strategies people use to manage the conflict the acceptability of the outcome of the conflict the specific point of contention giving rise to the conflict 7. Jon recently stopped a conflict with his girlfriend, Ana, and said to her, “You don’t know how to have a disagreement without losing your temper and swearing!” Ana replied, “Well at least I want to confront the issues instead of avoiding them!” Jon and Ana’s exchange is an example of a. the content dimension of conflict. b. the relational dimension of conflict. c. metaconflict. d. pseudoconflict. 8. Which of the following is NOT one of the health detriments associated with conflict described in your text? a. hardening of the arteries b. calcium deposits in the kidneys c. reduction in the body’s natural killer cells d. delayed wound healing 9. Research shows that three issues top the list as sources of conflict in romantic relationships. Which of the following is NOT among them? a. household chores b. relationships with in-laws c. personal criticisms d. finances 10. Which of the following statements about sex and conflict is FALSE? a. Women are always taught to be submissive to the demands of men. b. Men are generally taught to engage in conflict directly and competitively. c. Men are generally taught not to hurt women. d. Women might feel the need to fight to obtain necessary resources. 11. Which of the following is an example of passive aggression, as it is defined in the text? a. Tara is hurt when her brother forgets her birthday, so she deliberately “forgets” his. b. Parker is angry with his mother so he ignores her calls and e-mail messages. c. Bonnie doesn’t want to go to her neighbor’s party, so she takes so long to get ready for it that the party is over by the time she’s done. d. All the answers are correct. Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 12. When spouses engage in the demand-withdraw pattern, who is most likely to demand and who is more likely to withdraw? a. Men are most likely to demand; women are most likely to withdraw. b. Women are most likely to demand; men are most likely to withdraw. c. Women are most likely to demand and most likely to withdraw. d. Men are most likely to demand and most likely to withdraw. 13. Which of the following statements about collectivistic cultures is true? a. In conflict, group priorities are more important than individual priorities. b. Individuals are more likely to avoid conflict altogether. c. Parties involved in a conflict are likely to enlist a mediator to help reach an agreement. d. All the answers are correct. 14. Which of the following tips is NOT useful for managing an online conflict? a. Avoid responding right away. b. Always respond using the same communication medium. c. Clarify comments or statements that aren’t clear. d. Use emoticons to express your emotional state. 15. ________ is the ability to manipulate, influence, or control other people or events. a. Conflict b. Fear c. Power d. Coercion 16. Which of the following statements about power is FALSE? a. Power is known as a “single-dimension” concept. b. Power is always present. c. Power can be positive or negative. d. Power is context-specific. 17. A relationship between a person of higher power and a person of lesser power is known as a ________ relationship. a. symmetrical b. deficit c. contemporary d. complementary 18. Which form of power derives from the ability to punish? a. legitimate power b. expert power c. referent power d. coercive power Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 19. Feminist scholars highlight the fact that, worldwide, women earn only about ________ as much as men for the same job as a blatant example of gender inequality. a. 15% b. 40% c. 70% d. 90% 20. When people engage in ________, they use their words to attack or demean those around them. a. verbal aggression b. linguistic assault c. high-dominance conflict d. powerful language 21. People in which type of culture think of the unequal distribution of power as normal or even desirable? a. high-content b. low-context c. high-power-distance d. low-power-distance 22. When engaged in interpersonal conflict, ________ is the practice of saving up past grievances and bringing them all up at the same time. a. blindsiding b. counter-attacking c. gunnysacking d. rubber-band-balling 23. According to Gottman, people engage in which behavior when they insult each other and attack each other’s self-worth? a. contempt b. defensiveness c. criticism d. stonewalling 24. Which of the following statements correctly defines the concept of flooding? a. Flooding refers to a sudden rush of emotion and is commonly experienced by women during conflict. b. Flooding happens when someone engaged in conflict is emotionally or psychologically unable to engage the discussion further. c. Flooding is what happens to men in conflict when they experience a rapid increase in hormones that are responsible for stress and anger. d. Flooding happens when someone engaged in conflict experiences an increase in stress hormones after the other person stonewalls. Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 25. Which conflict-management strategy involves a high concern for the other party but a low concern for the self? a. collaborating b. accommodating c. avoiding d. compromising True/False Questions 26. To qualify as conflict, a struggle or disagreement has to be expressed. 27. The most distressed relationships are those with the most frequent conflict. 28. The strength of the immune system is predicted by the way people handle conflict, particularly in romantic relationships. 29. The topics that gay and lesbian couples experience conflict over tend to differ from the conflict topics of heterosexual couples. 30. Traditional gender socialization encourages men to use accommodating conflict management strategies. 31. The disinhibition effect suggests that online conflicts are more likely to involve inequitable distributions of power than face-to-face conflicts. 32. Referent power derives from one’s admiration for, and attraction to, another. 33. As an approach to structuring families and communities, patriarchy is virtually universal. 34. Stonewalling involves seeing yourself as a victim and denying responsibility for your own behaviors. 35. The goal of collaboration is to identify a “win-win” solution to a conflict. Chapter 12 Multiple-Choice Questions 1. a. b. c. d. Deception has several basic elements. Which of the following is NOT among them? The sender must believe the information is false. The receiver must believe the information is true. The information must be transmitted knowingly. The sender must intend to create a false belief in the receiver. Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 2. a. b. c. d. Misrepresenting facts for the purpose of material gain is known as forgery. impersonation. fraud. deception. 3. When Tonya’s boss asked her what time their meeting with the new client was, she replied that it was set for that afternoon at 3:30. She was so certain that she did not bother to check her calendar first. When Tonya and her boss arrived at the client’s office, the client was very upset because she had been waiting for 30 minutes for their 3:00 meeting. Tonya then checked her calendar, and sure enough, the meeting had been scheduled for 3:00. Which of the following is true of this scenario? a. Tonya lied to her boss, in order to avoid potential harm. b. Tonya did not lie to her boss, because she didn’t mean for her boss to believe her. c. Tonya lied to her boss, because she failed to check facts before making a statement. d. Tonya did not lie to her boss, because she believed her statement was true. 4. a. b. c. d. What is meant by the statement, “Deception can serve as a social lubricant”? People commonly engage in deception to get what they want from other people. People commonly engage in deception to avoid hurting others’ feelings. People commonly engage in deception in order to impress others. People commonly engage in deception in order to increase their number of friends. 5. a. b. c. d. According to your text, which of the following is NOT a common reason for deception? Some lies take advantage of others’ ignorance. Some lies make you look better. Some lies benefit the hearer. Some lies amuse you. 6. a. b. c. d. Lying under oath is known as fraud. perjury. omission. dissimulation. 7. a. b. c. d. Which of the following forms of deception is an act of dissimulation? exaggeration falsification sarcasm equivocation Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 8. In her diary study, communication scientist Sandra Metts found that almost half of people’s deception attempts involved which form of deception? a. falsification b. hyperbole c. omission d. exaggeration 9. When his girlfriend asks if he really loves her, Ramon gives her a vague, ambiguous response. Which form of deception is he attempting? a. fibbing b. equivocation c. exaggeration d. falsification 10. Frank’s grandfather loved to fish. Every time he came back from the lake, he described catching and releasing a bigger and bigger fish. We can infer from this story that Frank’s grandfather likely engaged in a. commission. b. equivocation. c. falsification. d. exaggeration. 11. When Ronaldo shopped for his new flat-screen television, he was surprised at the cost differences between some of the models. When he asked the salesperson for help, the salesperson assured him that the lower-end models could display the same high-definition channels as the more expensive ones. Because he was on a tight budget, Ronaldo took the salesperson’s advice and bought a cheaper model. Only when he got his TV home did Ronaldo realize that he needed to purchase an expensive converter box to actually receive HD channels. Which of the following statements is true about this scenario? a. The salesperson engaged in deception by lying. b. The salesperson engaged in deception by falsification. c. The salesperson engaged in deception by omission. d. The salesperson engaged in deception by misleading. 12. Research indicates that the average person can detect deception approximately what percentage of the time? a. 25% b. 40% c. 55% d. 73% 13. Which of the following contributes to people’s inability to detect deception accurately? a. truth bias b. focusing on the wrong nonverbal signals c. the fact that questioning everything we hear takes too much energy d. All of these contribute. Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 14. According to research, how do most people discover that they have been lied to? a. The liar confesses. b. A third party reveals the truth. c. Circumstantial evidence incriminates the liar. d. They investigate the evidence for themselves. 15. According to deception research, which of the following behavioral changes is a reliable cue to deception? a. increased smiling b. reduced vocal pitch c. decreased eye contact d. decreased gesturing 16. Research shows that men are more likely than women to lie about which characteristic in an online dating ad? a. physical attractiveness b. education level c. age d. ethnicity 17. According to research, an increase in which of the following nonverbal behaviors is indicative of deception? a. forward leans b. genuine smiles c. vocal fluency d. blinking 18. Which of the following would tend to increase your chances of detecting deception? a. being lied to by a friend instead of a stranger b. being lied to by a highly motivated liar c. being very suspicious d. being lied to by a very expressive liar 19. How have researchers typically studied deceptive behaviors in cross-cultural environments? a. They focus their research on the speaker’s vocal cues. b. They focus their research on the speaker’s truthfulness quotient. c. They focus their research on the speaker’s nonverbal cues. d. They focus their research on the speaker’s eye movement specifically. 20. Which of the following statements could be an example of the Othello error? a. A listener is so suspicious that he or she doubts someone else’s truthful statement. b. People tend to look for deception in bad news more than in good news. c. People tend to look for deception in good news more than in bad news. d. A listener is so trusting of another that he or she does not evaluate the truthfulness of the person’s statements. Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. True/False Questions 21. Many forms of politeness and discretion involve being deceptive. 22. It is impossible to lie if everything you say is true. 23. It is possible to be deceptive without ever saying a word. 24. Deception done for the right reasons is not really deception. 25. Most people are quite good at detecting deception. 26. Our truth bias is usually stronger for friends than for strangers. 27. One of the most common ways people discover they’ve been lied to is from third-party information. 28. Pupil dilation usually decreases when people are being deceptive. 29. Vocal characteristics are usually poor indicators of deception. 30. When lying to a stranger, one will usually be more successful doing so in a face-to-face conversation than in an e-mail message. Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.